Journal of Neurology

, Volume 264, Issue 11, pp 2330–2344 | Cite as

What’s new in neuromyelitis optica? A short review for the clinical neurologist

  • Daniel Whittam
  • Martin Wilson
  • Shahd Hamid
  • Geoff Keir
  • Maneesh Bhojak
  • Anu Jacob
Neurological Update


The evolution of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) from a rare, incurable and misunderstood disease with almost universally poor outcomes to its present state in just over a decade is unprecedented in neurology and possibly in medicine. Our knowledge of NMOSD biology has led to the recognition of wider phenotypes, new disease mechanisms, and thus clinical trials of new and effective treatments. This article aims to update readers on the recent developments in NMOSD with particular emphasis on clinical advances, the 2015 diagnostic criteria, biomarkers, imaging, and therapeutic interventions.


Optic neuritis Myelitis Aquaporin Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 



The UK NMO Service is funded by the National Health Service, through the Highly Specialised Commissioning Group.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

Dr. Jacob has received research grants from Biogen Idec, Alexion Pharmaceuticals and speakers fees from Biogen, Chugai, Sanofi-Genzyme and Terumo-BCT. Drs. Whittam, Wilson, Hamid, Keir and Bhojak have no relevant disclosures.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Whittam
    • 1
  • Martin Wilson
    • 1
  • Shahd Hamid
    • 1
  • Geoff Keir
    • 1
  • Maneesh Bhojak
    • 1
  • Anu Jacob
    • 1
  1. 1.The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery NHS TrustLiverpoolUK

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