Large fragment demineralization: an alternative pretreatment for forensic DNA typing of bones


In forensic genetics, the analysis of postmortem bones is one of the most challenging due to the low quantity of degraded endogenous DNA. The most widely used approach for sample preparation, in those cases, is pulverizing the bone. However, processing pulverized bone is extremely delicate, requiring strict laboratory conditions and operating procedures. In fact, several recent publications have focused on non-powder approaches. The objectives of this study were, thus, to validate a non-powder protocol for DNA extraction from forensic bones and an alternative pretreatment, large fragment demineralization (LFD). Thirty human femurs and tibiae received by the Legal Medicine Institute of Brescia, Italy, were included in the study. Bone powder and one transversal section of the diaphysis were sampled from each bone. DNA extraction from the powder was carried out using PrepFiler BTA (BTA), while the transversal section was submitted to the alternative demineralizing pretreatment (LFD) followed by DNA extraction using the QIAamp DNA Investigator. DNA extracts were assessed for human DNA quantity and degradation by means of a validated in-house qPCR assay and amplified with commercial kits. Inhibition assessment was carried out through Quality Sensor analysis using 24plex QS Kit. The differences in quantity, quality of human DNA, and number of alleles detected between both methods were comparable and not statistically significant. We propose the use of the LFD protocol as a complementary approach capable of confirming the genotypes or detect alleles not observed using BTA, without the need for pulverization.

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Correspondence to Heitor Corrêa.

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Corrêa, H., Cortellini, V., Franceschetti, L. et al. Large fragment demineralization: an alternative pretreatment for forensic DNA typing of bones. Int J Legal Med (2021).

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  • Bone
  • DNA typing
  • Forensic genetics
  • Human identification
  • Short tandem repeat