Genetic diversity of 17 autosomal STR loci in Meizhou Hakka population


The genetic polymorphism of 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 18D System was evaluated from 638 unrelated healthy Han individuals of Meizhou in Guangdong Province, Southern China. The values of combined power of discrimination (CPD) and the combined probability of exclusion (CPE) were observed as 0.999999999999999 and 0.999999933. Penta E showed the highest values of polymorphism information content (0.9073), expected heterozygosity (0.9147), and observed heterozygosity (0.9373), whereas TPOX showed the lowest (0.5373, 0.6035, and 0.6082). Furthermore, both of the PCA plot and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree showed that the Meizhou Hakka population has a relatively close genetic relationship with the Guangdong Han population. The results showed that most of these 17 autosomal STR loci were highly informative and can be effective for forensic individual identification and paternity testing in Meizhou Hakka population.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Wu S (1995) The origin and development theory of Hakka in Southern Song Dynasty. Fudan university journal of social sciences 5:108–113

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Zhang T (1997) Hakka formed in the Southern Song Dynasty. Academic Journal of Zhongzhou 2:119–124

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zhu J (2014) National treasure. People’s Art Publishing House, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Tan Y (2008) Hakka illustrated record. Lingnan Art Publishing House, Guangdong

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Weispfenning R et al (2011) Doing more with less: implementing direct amplification with the PowerPlex® 18D system. Forensic Science International Genetics Supplement 3(1):e409–e410

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Oostdik, et al., Developmental validation of the PowerPlex (R) 18D System, a rapid STR;multiplex for analysis of reference samples. Forensic Science International Genetics, 2013. 7(1): p. 129–135

  7. 7.

    TerebaA, Tools for analysis of population statistics; Promaga Corporation[J]. 1999

  8. 8.

    Excoffier L, Lischer H (2010) Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Mol Ecol Resour 10(3):564–567

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Naoko T, Masatoshi N, Koichiro T (2010) POPTREE2: software for constructing population trees from allele frequency data and computing other population statistics with Windows interface. Molecular Biology & Evolution 27(4):747–752

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hammer Ø, Dat H, Pd R Past: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron

  11. 11.

    Du W et al (2018) Genetic polymorphisms of 32 Y-STR loci in Meizhou Hakka population. Int J Legal Med 2–3:1–2

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are very grateful to all sample donors for their contributions to this work and all those who helped with sample collection.


This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81971798) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2019A15150).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Hongyu Sun or Chao Liu.

Ethics declarations

Informed consents were obtained before sample collection.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material


(XLSX 17 kb)


(XLSX 14 kb)


(PDF 52 kb)


(PDF 45 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Han, X., Shen, A., Yao, T. et al. Genetic diversity of 17 autosomal STR loci in Meizhou Hakka population. Int J Legal Med 135, 443–444 (2021).

Download citation


  • Forensic genetics
  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Meizhou Hakka
  • STR