Radiological investigation of gunshot wounds: a systematic review of published evidence



Despite the constantly growing popularity of radiological imaging in forensic pathology, a systematic review investigating the efficiency and limits of radiological techniques, in comparison to forensic autopsy, was still missing.


The present review aims at providing an overview on the current role of radiology in the forensic investigation of fatal gunshot wounds without any restriction to specific radiological techniques.

Material and methods

A systematic literature search on three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct) was performed until December 2017. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) grading system for levels of evidence was applied, in order to weigh published evidence.

Results and discussion

Eighty-six papers (1.64% of the records) were included. Despite the quite limited general level of evidence, which contrasts with the abundance of the scientific literature on this topic, several recommendations/statements, coupled to their OCEBM grade, were distilled as for the identification of retained bullets, gunshot wounds detection, diagnosis of entrance and exit wounds, trajectories and internal injury detection and estimation of the firing distance.


Imaging radiological technologies represent the present and future of wound ballistics. However, traditional, micro and molecular imaging techniques require further validation through blinded cross-sectional studies with appropriate reference standards (e.g. forensic autopsy).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Messmer JM, Fierro MF (1986) Radiologic forensic investigation of fatal gunshot wounds. Radiographics 6(3):457–473

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Thali MJ, Yen K, Vock P, Ozdoba C, Kneubuehl BP, Sonnenschein M, Dirnhofer R (2003) Image-guided virtual autopsy findings of gunshot victims performed with multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent correlation between radiology and autopsy findings. Forensic Sci Int 138(1–3):8–16

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Thali MJ, Viner MD, Brogdon BG (2010) Brogdon’s forensic radiology, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Metter D, Stute H, Rauschke J (1989) Forensic medicine roentgen studies in gunshot wounds of the skull. Beitr Gerichtl Med 47:473–477

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dirnhofer R, Jackowski C, Vock P, Potter K, Thali MJ (2006) VIRTOPSY: minimally invasive, imaging-guided virtual autopsy. Radiographics 26(5):1305–1333

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bolliger SA, Thali MJ, Gascho D, Poschmann SA, Eggert S (2017) Movement of steel-jacketed projectiles in biological tissue in the magnetic field of a 3-T magnetic resonance unit. Int J Legal Med 131(5):1363–1368

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Eggert S, Kubik-Huch RA, Lory M, Froehlich JM, Gascho D, Thali MJ, Bolliger SA (2015) The influence of 1.5 and 3 T magnetic resonance unit magnetic fields on the movement of steel-jacketed projectiles in ordnance gelatin. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 11(4):544–551

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Luijten M, Haest II, van Kan RA, van Lohuizen W, Kroll J, Schnerr RS, Hermsen R, Hofman PA (2016) Can postmortem MRI be used to assess trajectories in gunshot victims? Int J Legal Med 130(2):457–462

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Gascho D, Ampanozi G, Ebert L, Bolliger S, Eggert S, Franckenberg S, Thali M, Flach P (2016) A moot point! A homicide case report on ambiguous projectile movement on postmortem MR. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 5:62–67

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Oehmichen M, Gehl H-BB, Meissner C, Petersen D, Höche W, Gerling I, König HG (2003) Forensic pathological aspects of postmortem imaging of gunshot injury to the head: documentation and biometric data. Acta Neuropathol 105(6):570–580

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Grabherr S, Grimm JM, Heinemann A (2016) Atlas of postmortem angiography. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Dedini RD, Karacozoff AM, Shellock FG, Xu D, McClellan RT, Pekmezci M (2013) MRI issues for ballistic objects: information obtained at 1.5-, 3- and 7-Tesla. Spine J 13(7):815–822

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Rutty GN, Brough A, Biggs MJ, Robinson C, Lawes SD, Hainsworth SV (2013) The role of micro-computed tomography in forensic investigations. Forensic Sci Int 225(1–3):60–66

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    OCEBM Levels of Evidence Working Group. Howick J, Chalmers I, Glasziou P, Greenhalgh T, Heneghan C, Liberati A, Moschetti I, Phillips B, Thornton H, Goddard O, Hodgkinson M (2011) The Oxford levels of evidence 2. Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Accessed 24 October 2018

  15. 15.

    Bowen DAL (1966) The role of radiology and the identification of foreign bodies at post mortem examination. J Forensic Sci Soc 6(1):28–32

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Pinto A, Brunese L, Scaglione M, Scuderi MG, Romano L (2009) Gunshot injuries in the neck area: ballistics elements and forensic issues. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 30(3):215–220

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Navarro JA, Cortés E, Sanz CL, Pellicer MA (1991) Finding of a bullet in the cervical column of a body hit by a train. J Forensic Sci 36(2):602–606

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    McNulty JP, Gapert R (2013) Forensic anthropology and radiography in the examination of an unknown mummified hand. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 9(4):602–606

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Tsuboi A, Satoh F, Seto Y, Medicine O-M (2014) Self-inflicted fatal shotgun wound from a homemade weapon. Leg Med (Tokyo) 16(2):81–83

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Tattoli L, Schmid S, Tsokos M (2014) Three rounds as “tandem bullets”: unusual findings in a case of a suicidal gunshot to the head. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 10(4):613–618

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ampanozi G, Schwendener N, Krauskopf A, Thali MJ, Bartsch C (2013) Incidental occult gunshot wound detected by postmortem computed tomography. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 9(1):68–72

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Harcke HT, Levy AD, Abbott RM, Mallak CT, Getz JM, Champion HR, Pearse L (2007) Autopsy radiography: digital radiographs (DR) vs multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in high-velocity gunshot-wound victims. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 28(1):13–19

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Dodd GD 3rd, Budzik RF Jr (1990) Identification of retained firearm projectiles on plain radiographs. AJR Am J Roentgenol 154:471–475

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Jeffery AJ, Rutty GN, Robinson C, Morgan B (2008) Computed tomography of projectile injuries. Clin Radiol 63(10):1160–1166

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Hejna P, Zátopková L, Safr M, Straka L (2013) Circular saw-associated fatality mimicking gunshot injury. J Forensic Sci 58(Suppl 1):S267–S269

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Graham EW, Tawadros AM, Prahlow JA (2014) Decreased subject contrast and summation artifact: an explanation for a nearly imperceptible bullet by X-ray examination. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 35(4):249–252

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Wade AD, Conlogue GJ (2013) Forensic considerations for preprocessing effects on clinical MDCT scans. J Forensic Sci 58(3):797–803

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Miller CR, Haag M, Gerrard C, Hatch GM, Elifritz J, Simmons MC, Lathrop S, Nolte KB (2016) Comparative evaluation of potentially radiolucent projectile components by radiographs and computed tomography. J Forensic Sci 61(6):1563–1570

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Kirchhoff SM, Scaparra EF, Grimm J, Scherr M, Graw M, Reiser MF, Peschel O (2016) Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy in deadly gunshot wounds--a comparative study. Int J Legal Med 130(3):819–826

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Levy AD, Abbott RM, Mallak CT, Getz JM, Harcke HT, Champion HR, Pearse LA (2006) Virtual autopsy: preliminary experience in high-velocity gunshot wound victims. Radiology 240(2):522–528

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Clark KR (2016) Imaging assessment of gunshot injuries. Radiol Technol 87(6):627–644

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Karger B, Puskas Z, Ruwald B, Teige K, Schuirer G (1998) Morphological findings in the brain after experimental gunshots using radiology, pathology and histology. Int J Legal Med 111(6):314–319

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Puentes K, Taveira F, Madureira AJJ, Santos A, Magalhães T (2009) Three-dimensional reconstitution of bullet trajectory in gunshot wounds: a case report. J Forensic Legal Med 16(7):407–410

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Thomsen AH, Jurik AG, Uhrenholt L, Vesterby A (2009) An alternative approach to computerized tomography (CT) in forensic pathology. Forensic Sci Int 183(1–3):87–90

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Leth PM (2009) Computerized tomography used as a routine procedure at postmortem investigations. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 30(3):219–222

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Von See C, Bormann K-HH, Schumann P, Goetz F, Gellrich N-CC, Rücker M (2009) Forensic imaging of projectiles using cone-beam computed tomography. Forensic Sci Int 190(1–3):38–41

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Yong TE (2017) A systematic review on ricochet gunshot injuries. Leg Med (Tokyo) 26:45–51

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Flach P, Ampanozi G, Germerott T, Ross S, Krauskopf A, Thali M, Mund M (2013) Shot sequence detection aided by postmortem computed tomography in a case of homicide. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 1(2):68–72

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Maiese A, Gitto L, De Matteis A, Panebianco V, Bolino G (2014) Post mortem computed tomography: useful or unnecessary in gunshot wounds deaths? Two case reports. Leg Med (Tokyo) 16(6):357–363

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Viero A, Giraudo C, Cecchetto G, Muscovich C, Favretto D, Puglisi M, Fais P, Viel G (2014) An unusual case of “dyadic-death” with a single gunshot. Forensic Sci Int 244:e1–e5

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Usui A, Kawasumi Y, Hosokai Y, Kozakai M, Saito H, Funayama M (2016) Usefulness and limitations of postmortem computed tomography in forensic analysis of gunshot injuries: three case reports. Leg Med (Tokyo) 18:98–103

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Van Kan RAT, Haest IIH, Lahaye MJ, Hofman PAM (2017) The diagnostic value of forensic imaging in fatal gunshot incidents: a review of literature. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 10:9–14

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Garetier M, Deloire L, Dédouit F, Dumousset E, Saccardy C, Ben Salem D (2017) Postmortem computed tomography findings in suicide victims. Diagn Interv Imaging 98(2):101–112

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Andenmatten MA, Thali MJ, Kneubuehl BP, Oesterhelweg L, Ross S, Spendlove D, Bolliger SA (2008) Gunshot injuries detected by post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT): a feasibility study. Leg Med (Tokyo) 10(6):287–292

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Krispin A, Zaitsev K, Hiss J (2010) The elusive slug: bullet intestinal “embolism”. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 6(4):288–292

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Hanna TN, Shuaib W, Han T, Mehta A, Khosa F (2015) Firearms, bullets, and wound ballistics: an imaging primer. Injury 46(7):1186–1196

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Chute DJ, Newman K, Bready RJ, Benjamin ED (2017) Case report of a migrating bullet: an unusual cause of postmortem confusion. J Forensic Sci 62(5):1386–1388

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Makhlouf F, Scolan V, Ferretti G, Stahl C, Paysant F (2013) Gunshot fatalities: correlation between post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography and autopsy findings: a 30-months retrospective study. Leg Med (Tokyo) 15(3):145–148

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Smith AS, Hurst GC, Duerk JL, Diaz PJ (1991) MR of ballistic materials: imaging artifacts and potential hazards. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 12(3):567–572

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Tuchtan L, Gorincour G, Kolopp M, Massiani P, Léonetti G, Piercecchi-Marti MD, Bartoli C (2017) Combined use of postmortem 3D computed tomography reconstructions and 3D-design software for postmortem ballistic analysis. Diagn Interv Imaging 98(11):809–812

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Yen K, Lövblad KO, Scheurer E, Ozdoba C, Thali MJ, Aghayev E, Jackowski C, Anon J, Frickey N, Zwygart K, Weis J, Dirnhofer R (2007) Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results. Forensic Sci Int 173(1):21–35

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Sano R, Hirawasa S, Kobayashi S, Shimada T, Awata S, Takei H, Otake H, Takahashi K, Takahashi Y, Kominato Y (2011) Use of postmortem computed tomography to reveal an intraoral gunshot injuries in a charred body. Leg Med (Tokyo) 13(6):286–288

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Viel G, Gehl A, Sperhake JP (2009) Intersecting fractures of the skull and gunshot wounds. Case report and literature review. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 5(1):22–27

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Berens S, Ketterer T, Kneubuehl BP, Thali MJ, Ross S, Bolliger SA (2011) A case of homicidal intraoral gunshot and review of the literature. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 7(2):209–212

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    McLaughlin S, Bouhaidar R (2015) Post-mortem CT appearances in pulmonary blast injury secondary to shotgun suicide. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 3(2):131–133

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Schyma C, Placidi P, Schild HH (1996) Radiological findings in gunshot wounds caused by hunting ammunition. An experimental study. Int J Legal Med 108(4):201–205

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Fais P, Giraudo C, Boscolo-Berto R, Amagliani A, Miotto D, Feltrin G, Viel G, Ferrara SD, Cecchetto G (2013) Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire. Int J Legal Med 127(2):419–425

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Fais P, Giraudo C, Viero A, Amagliani A, Viel G, Montisci M, Miotto D, Cecchetto G (2015) Identification of bullet entrance in different type of intermediate firearm wounds through micro-computed tomography analysis. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 3(3):147–152

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Amadasi A, Borgonovo S, Brandone A, Di Giancamillo M, Cattaneo C (2012) The survival of metallic residues from gunshot wounds in cremated bone: a radiological study. Int J Legal Med 126(3):363–369

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Amadasi A, Borgonovo S, Brandone A, Di Giancamillo M, Cattaneo C (2014) A comparison between digital radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance in the detection of gunshot residues in burnt tissues and bone. J Forensic Sci 59(3):712–717

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Tartaglione T, Filograna L, Roiati S, Guglielmi G, Colosimo C, Bonomo L (2012) Importance of 3D-CT imaging in single-bullet cranioencephalic gunshot wounds. Radiol Med 117(3):461–470

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Thali MJ, Kneubuehl BP, Vock P, G v A, Dirnhofer R (2002) High-speed documented experimental gunshot to a skull-brain model and radiologic virtual autopsy. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 23(3):223–228

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Oehmichen M, Meissner C, König HG, Gehl H-BB (2004) Gunshot injuries to the head and brain caused by low-velocity handguns and rifles. A review. Forensic Sci Int 146(2–3):111–120

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Smith OC, Berryman HE, Symes SA, Francisco JT, Hnilica V (1993) Atypical gunshot exit defects to the cranial vault. J Forensic Sci 38(2):339–334

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Delannoy Y, Colard T, Le Garff E, Humez S, Gosset D, Hedouin V (2016) The mechanism of the keyhole lesion reassessed: an experimental approach. J Forensic Legal Med 37:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Abdul Rashid SN, Martinez RM, Ampanozi, Thali MJ, Bartsch (2013) A rare case of suicide by gunshot with nasal entry assessed by classical autopsy, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR). J Forensic Radiol Imaging 1(2):63–67

  67. 67.

    Verhoff MA, Karger B, Ramsthaler F, Obert M (2008) Investigations on an isolated skull with gunshot wounds using flat-panel CT. Int J Legal Med 122(5):441–445

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Lantz PE, Jerome WG, Jaworski JA (1994) Radiopaque deposits surrounding a contact small-caliber gunshot wound. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 15(1):10–13

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Stein KM, Bahner ML, Merkel J, Ain S, Mattern R (2000) Detection of gunshot residues in routine CTs. Int J Legal Med 114(1–2):15–18

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Oehmichen M, Meissner C (2009) Routine techniques in forensic neuropathology as demonstrated by gunshot injury to the head. Leg Med (Tokyo) 11 Suppl 1:S50–S53

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Cecchetto G, Amagliani A, Giraudo C, Fais P, Cavarzeran F, Montisci M, Feltrin G, Viel G, Ferrara SD (2012) Micro-CT detection of gunshot residue in fresh and decomposed firearm wounds. Int J Legal Med 126(3):377–383

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Giraudo C, Fais P, Pelletti G, Viero A, Miotto D, Boscolo-Berto R, Viel G, Montisci M, Cecchetto G, Ferrara SD (2016) Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds covered by textiles. Int J Legal Med 130(5):1257–1264

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Colard T, Delannoy Y, Bresson F, Marechal C, Raul JS, Hedouin V (2013) 3D-MSCT imaging of bullet trajectory in 3D crime scene reconstruction: two case reports. Leg Med (Tokyo) 15(6):318–322

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Thali MJ, Schweitzer W, Yen K, Vock P, Ozdoba C, Spielvogel E, Dirnhofer R (2003) New horizons in forensic radiology: the 60-second digital autopsy-full-body examination of a gunshot victim by multislice computed tomography. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 24(1):22–27

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Lancia M, Rosati V, Gioia S, Conforti F, Suadoni F (2014) An unusual case of unintentional firearm death of a 3-year-old child. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 35(3):178–180

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Gibb IE (2008) Computed tomography of projectile injuries. Clin Radiol 63(10):1167–1168

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Hayashi T, Gapert R, Tsokos M, Hartwig S (2013) Suicide with two shots to the head using a rare ‘Velo-Dog’ pocket revolver. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 9(2):265–269

  78. 78.

    Deyle S, Exadaktylos AK, Kneubuehl BP, Buck U, Thali MJ, Voisard MX (2011) Collateral damage--penetrating head injury and orbital injury: a case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 32(3):215–218

  79. 79.

    Malbranque S, Jousset N, Nedelcu C, Rougé-Maillart C (2014) Bone-patch type secondary projectiles: a report on two shots fired at point-blank range using hollow point bullets. Forensic Sci Int 245:e6–e10

  80. 80.

    Marchetti D, Tartaglione T, Mattiu G, Giovine E, Fiori A (2003) Reconstruction of the angle of shot by using computed radiography of the head. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 24(2):155–159

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Straathof D, Bannach BG, Wilson AJ, Dowling GP (2000) Radiography of perforating centerfire rifle wounds of the trunk. J Forensic Sci 45(3):597–601

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Folio LR, Fischer T, Shogan P, Frew M, Dwyer A, Provenzale JM (2011) Blast and ballistic trajectories in combat casualties: a preliminary analysis using a Cartesian positioning system with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 197(2):W233–W240

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Folio LR, Fischer TV, Shogan PJ, Frew MI, Kang PS, Bunger R, Provenzale JM (2011) CT-based ballistic wound path identification and trajectory analysis in anatomic ballistic phantoms. Radiology 258(3):923–929

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Filograna L, Tartaglione T, Filograna E, Cittadini F, Oliva A, Pascali VL (2010) Computed tomography (CT) virtual autopsy and classical autopsy discrepancies: radiologist’s error or a demonstration of post-mortem multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) limitation? Forensic Sci Int 195(1–3):e13–e17

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Harcke HT, Levy AD, Getz JM, Robinson SR (2008) MDCT analysis of projectile injury in forensic investigation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 190(2):W106–W111

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Peschel O, Szeimies U, Vollmar C, Kirchhoff S (2013) Postmortem 3-D reconstruction of skull gunshot injuries. Forensic Sci Int 233(1–3):45–45

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Cascini F, Tartaglione T, Oliva A, Marchetti D (2009) A case of hunting death due to an overpenetrated bullet. Int J Legal Med 123(2):151–153

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Choi CH, Pritchard J, Richard J (1990) Path of bullet and injuries determined by radiography. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 11(3):244–245

  89. 89.

    Le Blanc-Louvry I, Thureau S, Duval C, Papin-Lefebvre F, Thiebot J, Dacher JN, Gricourt C, Touré E, Proust B (2013) Post-mortem computed tomography compared to forensic autopsy findings: a French experience. Eur Radiol 23(7):1829–1835

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Ruder TD, Ross S, Preiss U, Thali MJ (2010) Minimally invasive post-mortem CT-angiography in a case involving a gunshot wound. Leg Med (Tokyo) 12(3):154–156

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Rutty GN, Boyce P, Robinson CE, Jeffery AJ, Morgan B (2008) The role of computed tomography in terminal ballistic analysis. Int J Legal Med 122(1):1–5

  92. 92.

    Cecchetto G, Giraudo C, Amagliani A, Viel G, Fais P, Cavarzeran F, Feltrin G, Ferrara SD, Montisci M (2011) Estimation of the firing distance through micro-CT analysis of gunshot wounds. Int J Legal Med 125(2):245–251

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Guido Viel.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material


(DOCX 255 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Giorgetti, A., Giraudo, C., Viero, A. et al. Radiological investigation of gunshot wounds: a systematic review of published evidence. Int J Legal Med 133, 1149–1158 (2019).

Download citation


  • Forensic pathology
  • Forensic radiology
  • Terminal ballistics
  • Firearm
  • Systematic review