International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 132, Issue 5, pp 1293–1296 | Cite as

Forensic parameters and admixture in Mestizos from five geographic regions of Mexico based on 20 autosomal STRs (Powerplex 21 system)

  • J. A. Aguilar-Velázquez
  • G. Martínez-Cortés
  • A. Inclán-Sánchez
  • A. F. Favela-Mendoza
  • J. S. Velarde-Félix
  • H. Rangel-VillalobosEmail author
Population Data


We analyzed Mestizo (admixed) population samples from different geographic regions of Mexico (n = 1283) with 20 autosomal STRs (PowerPlex® 21, Promega Corp.). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters from the Northwest, Northeast, West, Center, and Southeast regions are reported, as well as from the pooled Mexican population sample. The combined PD and PE for this 20 STR system were > 0.9999999999 and > 0.99999996593% in all five population samples, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of these Mexican population samples, plus Monterrey (Northeast) and Mexico (Center) Cities, showed low but significant differences among Mexican-Mestizos from the seven populations (Fst = 0.20%; p = 0.0000). Structure analysis showed the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Mexico City, Center, and Southeast regions, respectively, which was in agreement with the estimated genetic distances represented in a MDS plot and a NJ tree. The best fit of population clusters (K = 4) obtained with the Structure software indicates that Mexican-Mestizos are mainly composed by European, African, and two Native American ancestries. The European and Native American ancestries displayed a contrary gradient, increasing toward the North-West and South-Southeast, respectively. These 20 autosomal STR loci improved the admixture estimation regarding previous studies with the 13 CODIS-STRs, as supported by the higher similarity with previous estimates based on genome-wide SNP. In brief, this study validates the confident use of the PowerPlex® 21 system for human identification purposes in Mestizo populations throughout the Mexican territory.


STRs Mexico Mestizos Structure Powerplex Mexican population 



The authors thank to all volunteers included in this study and to the ConsejoNacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) for the financial support to HR-V (Grant No. 129693) and for the fellowship to JAA-V. We thank to Distribuidora Comercial Zogbi for the partial support to this project. The authors thank to the QFBs Odette Rentería, Xochitl Díaz, and Juan Páez for the technical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

All volunteers were informed of the study and firmed an informed consent document according with the principles of the outlined in the Helsinki Declaration.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Fig. S1

STRUCTURE plots of supervised analysis in Mexican-Mestizos and Major Ethnic groups of USA based on 20 STRs. Please check abbreviations in Table S1 and Materials and methods section. Composition of the Mexican Native American ancestral reference: 1. North_NA; 2. WC_NA; 3. South_NA; 4. SE_NA. (GIF 347 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 1173 kb)
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Supplementary Table S1 (DOCX 19 kb)
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Supplementary Table S2 (XLSX 261 kb)
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Supplementary Table S3 (XLSX 63 kb)
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Supplementary Table S4 (XLSX 11 kb)
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Supplementary Table S5 (DOCX 17.6 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la CiénegaUniversidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG)OcotlánMexico
  2. 2.Doctorado en Genética Humana, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG)GuadalajaraMexico
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Genética ForenseProcuraduría de Justicia del Distrito FederalMéxico DFMexico
  4. 4.Centro de Medicina Genómica del Hospital General de Culiacán “Dr. Bernardo J. Gastélum”Servicios de Salud de SinaloaCuliacánMexico
  5. 5.Escuela de BiologíaUniversidad Autónoma de SinaloaCuliacánMexico

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