Comparative studies of the level of DNA damage induced in vitro by X-rays (0–8 Gy) or hydrogen peroxide (0–300 µM) in cells of blood, spleen, and bone marrow of mice and in blood cells of frogs and humans were performed using the alkaline comet assay. For both agents, the levels of induced DNA damage in leucocytes/splenocytes of mice were higher than those in blood cells of frogs and humans, while in human leucocytes, they were comparable with those in frog blood cells. The rate of DNA repair in frog blood cells was very slow. The results suggest that the levels of radiation-induced DNA damage are not in accordance with species radiosensitivity (according to LD50/30) but rather with the intrinsic peculiarities of cells.
Comet assay DNA damage X-ray Hydrogen peroxide
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We are grateful to V.K. Uteshev (Institute of Cell Biophysics RAS, Pushchino of Moscow Region) for granting blood samples of Rana temporaria.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human and animal participants
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Adelman R, Saul RL, Ames BN (1988) Oxidative damage to DNA: relation to species metabolic rate and life span. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:2706–2708ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond VP, Fliedner TM, Archambeau JO (1965) Mammalian radiation lethality. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Brammer I, Zoller M, Dikomey E (2001) Relationship between cellular radiosensitivity and DNA damage measured by comet assay in human normal, NBS and AT fibroblasts. Int J Radiat Biol 77:929–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chemeris NK, Gapeyev AB, Sirota NP et al (2004) The in vitro assessment of potential genotoxicity of high power microwave pulses. Mutat Res 558:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen MM Jr (2001) Frog decline, frog malformations, and a comparison of frog and human health. Am J Med Genet 104:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins AR, Oscoz AA, Brunborg G et al (2008) The comet assay: topical issues. Mutagenesis 23:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giovannelli L, Pitozzi V, Riolo S, Dolara P (2003) Measurement of DNA breaks and oxidative damage in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear white blood cells: a novel approach using the comet assay. Mutat Res 538:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gűerci A, Zúñiga L, Marcos R (2011) Construction and validation of a dose-response curve using the comet assay to determine human radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation. J Toxicol Env Heal A 74:1087–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hellman B, Brodin D, Andersson M et al (2005) Radiation-induced DNA-damage and gene expression profiles in human lung cancer cells with different radiosensitivity. Exp Oncol 27:102–107Google Scholar
Karran P, Ormerod MG (1973) Is the ability to repair damage to DNA related to the proliferative capacity of a cell? The rejoining of X-ray-produced strand breaks. Biochim Biophys Acta 299:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kondratieva I (2001) Experimental models: methods for animal treatment. In: Kondratieva I, Samuilov V (eds) Manual in immunology, MSU, Moscow, pp 8–41 (in Russian)Google Scholar
Lankinen MH, Vilpo LM, Vilpo JA (1996) UV- and gamma-irradiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks and their repair in human blood granulocytes and lymphocytes. Mutat Res 352:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenton KJ, Therriault H, Cantin AM et al (2000) Direct correlation of glutathione and ascorbate and their dependence on age and season in human lymphocytes. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1194–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovell DP, Omori T (2008) Statistical issues in the use of the comet assay. Mutagenesis 23:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsuba C, Merila J (2006) Genome size variation in the common frog. Rana Temporaria Hereditas 143:155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muller WU, Bauch T, Streffer C et al (1994) Comet assay studies of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in various tumour cell lines. Int J Radiat Biol 65:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munday R, Winterboume CC (1989) Reduced glutathione in combination with superoxide dismutase as an impotant biological antioxidant defense mechanism. Biochem Pharmacol 38:4349–4352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oppitz U, Schulte S, Stopper H et al (2002) In vitro radiosensitivity measured in lymphocytes and fibroblasts by colony formation and comet assay: comparison with clinical acute reactions to radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Biol 78:611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Purschke M, Kasten-Pisula U, Brammer I, Dikomey E (2004) Human and rodent cell lines showing no differences in the induction but differing in the repair kinetics of radiation-induced DNA base damage. Int J Radiat Biol 80:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sigurdson AJ, Hauptmann M, Alexander BH et al (2005) DNA damage among thyroid cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals. Mutat Res 586:173–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparrow AH, Underbrink AG, Sparrow RC (1967) Cromosomes and cellular radiosensitivity. I. The relationship of D0 to chromosome volume and complexity in seventy-nine different organisms. Radiat Res 32:915–945ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suvorova LA, Nugis VYu (2012) Dynamics of leucocytes and leucogram after a single human exposure to doses below 1 Gy. Medical Radiol Radiat Saf (Meditsinskaia Radiologiia Radiatsionnaia Bezopasnost) 57:30–38 (Russian)Google Scholar
Taylor CG, Potter AJ, Rabinovitch PS (1997) Splenocyte glutathione and CD3-mediated cell proliferation are reduced in mice fed a protein-deficient diet. J Nutr 127:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNSCEAR 2013 Report Vol. I (2014) Sources, Effects and risks of ionizing radiation. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Valverde M, Rojas E (2009) Environmental and occupational biomonitoring using the comet assay. Mutat Res 681:93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaichkina SI, Rozanova OM, Aptikaeva GF et al. (2007) Peculiarities of the effect of low-dose-rate radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions on mice in vivo. Radiat Environ Biophys 46:131–135. http://textarchive.ru/c-1318834-p25.html (in Russian)