Advertisement

Textural and micro-analytical insights into mafic–felsic interactions during the Oruanui eruption, Taupo

  • Shane M. Rooyakkers
  • Colin J. N. Wilson
  • C. Ian Schipper
  • Simon J. Barker
  • Aidan S. R. Allan
Original Paper

Abstract

Quenched juvenile mafic inclusions (enclaves) are an occasional but informative component in the deposits of large felsic eruptions. Typically, the groundmasses of these inclusions rapidly crystallize as the mafic magma is chilled against a more voluminous, cooler felsic host, providing a physical and chemical record of the nature and timing of mafic–felsic interactions. We examine mafic inclusions of two compositional lineages (tholeiitic and calc-alkaline) from deposits of the 25.4 ka Oruanui eruption (Taupo, New Zealand). 2-D quantitative textural data from analysis of back-scattered electron images reveal a marked diversity in the groundmass textures of the inclusions, including median crystal sizes (amphibole: 14–45 µm; plagioclase: 21–75 µm) and aspect ratios (amphibole: 1.7–4.2; plagioclase: 2.1–4.0), area number densities (amphibole: 122–2660 mm−2; plagioclase: 117–2990 mm−2), area fractions (ϕ) of minerals (ϕplag = 23–45%, ϕamph = 0–28%, ϕcpx = 0–6%, ϕoxides = 0.6–5.5%), and the relative abundance of plagioclase and amphibole (ϕplag/ϕamph = 1.0–4.6). Textural parameters vary more significantly within, rather than between, the two compositional lineages, and in some cases show marked variations across individual clasts, implying that each inclusion’s cooling history, rather than bulk composition, was the dominant control on textural development. Groundmass mineral compositions are also diverse both within and between inclusions (e.g. plagioclase from An34–92, with typical intra-clast variability of ~ 20 mol%), and do not correlate with bulk chemistry. Diverse groundmass textures and mineral and glass chemistries are inferred to reflect complex interplay of a range of factors including the degree and rate of undercooling, bulk composition, water content and, possibly, intensive variables. Our data are inconsistent with breakup of a crystallizing ponded mafic layer at the base of the Oruanui melt-dominant body, instead implying that each inclusion partially crystallized as a discrete body with a unique cooling history. Extensive ingestion of mush-derived macro-crystals suggests that mechanical breakup of mafic feeder dikes occurred within a transition zone between the mush and melt-dominant magma body. In this zone, the mush lacked yield strength, as has been inferred from field studies of narrow (meters to few tens of meters) mush-melt transition zones preserved in composite intrusions. Evidence for plastic deformation of inclusions during eruption and the abundance of fresh residual glass in inclusions from all eruptive phases suggest that the inclusions formed syn-eruptively, and must have been formed recurrently at multiple stages throughout the eruption.

Keywords

Oruanui eruption Taupo Volcanic Zone Quench crystallization Mafic–felsic interaction Taupo volcano Textural analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

SMR acknowledges support from a Victoria University MSc scholarship. Australian Synchrotron access was gained from proposal 2015/1-M9095 and supported by the New Zealand Synchrotron Group. CJNW was supported by a Cook fellowship from the Royal Society of New Zealand. We thank John Gamble, Jim Cole, John Stix and Bob Wiebe for helpful comments and discussions, Katie Preece and an anonymous reviewer for constructive reviews that improved the manuscript, and Gordon Moore for editorial handling.

Supplementary material

410_2018_1461_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (562 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 561 KB)

References

  1. Allan ASR, Wilson CJN, Millet MA, Wysoczanski RJ (2012) The invisible hand: tectonic triggering and modulation of a rhyolitic supereruption. Geology 40:563–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan ASR, Morgan DJ, Wilson CJN, Millet MA (2013) From mush to eruption in centuries: assembly of the super-sized Oruanui magma body. Contrib Mineral Petrol 166:143–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan ASR, Barker SJ, Millet MA, Morgan DJ, Rooyakkers SM, Schipper CI, Wilson CJN (2017) A cascade of magmatic events during the assembly and eruption of a super-sized magma body. Contrib Mineral Petrol 172:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews BJ, Manga M (2014) Thermal and rheological controls on the formation of mafic enclaves or banded pumice. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annen C, Blundy JD, Sparks RSJ (2006) The genesis of intermediate and silicic magmas in deep crustal hot zones. J Petrol 47:505–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bachmann O, Bergantz GW (2006) Gas percolation in upper-crustal silicic crystal mushes as a mechanism for upward heat advection and rejuvenation of near-solidus magma bodies. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 149:85–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachmann O, Dungan MA (2002) Temperature-induced Al-zoning in hornblendes of the Fish Canyon magma, Colorado. Am Mineral 87:1062–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bachmann O, Deering CD, Lipman PW, Plummer C (2014) Building zoned ignimbrites by recycling silicic cumulates: insight from the 1000 km3 Carpenter Ridge Tuff, CO. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bacon CR (1986) Magmatic inclusions in silicic and intermediate volcanic rocks. J Geophys Res 91:6091–6112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bacon CR, Metz J (1984) Magmatic inclusions in rhyolites, contaminated basalts, and compositional zonation beneath the Coso volcanic field, California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 85:346–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bain AA, Jellinek AM, Wiebe RA (2013) Quantitative field constraints on the dynamics of silicic magma chamber rejuvenation and overturn. Contrib Mineral Petrol 165:1275–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blake S, Wilson CJN, Smith IEM, Walker GPL (1992) Petrology and dynamics of the Waimihia mixed magma eruption, Taupo volcano, New Zealand. J Geol Soc Lond 149:193–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blundy JD, Holland TJB (1990) Calcic amphibole equilibria and a new amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 104:208–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brophy JG (1991) Composition gaps, critical crystallinity, and fractional crystallization in orogenic (calc-alkaline) magmatic systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burgisser A, Bergantz GW (2011) A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature 471:212–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cashman KV (1993) Relationship between plagioclase crystallization and cooling rate in basaltic melts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 113:126–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cashman KV, Blundy JD (2000) Degassing and crystallization of ascending andesite and dacite. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond A358:1487–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christensen JN, DePaolo DJ (1993) Time scales of large volume silicic magma systems: Sr isotopic systematics of phenocrysts and glass from the Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 113:100–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coombs ML, Eichelberger JC, Rutherford MJ (2002) Experimental and textural constraints on mafic enclave formation in volcanic rocks. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 119:125–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davy BW, Caldwell TG (1998) Gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys of the caldera complex, Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 81:69–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Angelis SH, Larsen J, Coombs M (2013) Pre-eruptive magmatic conditions at Augustine volcano, Alaska, 2006: Evidence from amphibole geochemistry and textures. J Petrol 54:1939–1961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deering CD, Cole JW, Vogel TA (2011) Extraction of crystal-poor rhyolite from a hornblende-bearing intermediate mush: a case study of the caldera-forming Matahina eruption, Okataina volcanic complex. Contrib Mineral Petrol 161:129–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eichelberger JC (1980) Vesiculation of mafic magma during replenishment of silicic magma reservoirs. Nature 288:446–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eichelberger JC, Gooley R (1977) Evolution of silicic magma chambers and their relationship to basaltic volcanism. In Heacock JG, Keller GV, Oliver JE, Simmons G (eds), The earth’s crust—its nature and physical properties. Am Geophys Un Geophys Monogr 20:57–77Google Scholar
  25. Feeley TC, Wilson LF, Underwood S (2008) Distribution and compositions of magmatic inclusions in the Mount Helen dome, Lassen Volcanic Center, California: insights into magma chamber processes. Lithos 106:173–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenn PM (1977) The nucleation and growth of alkali feldspars from hydrous melts. Can Mineral 15:135–161Google Scholar
  27. Frost TP, Mahood GA (1987) Field, chemical, and physical constraints on mafic-felsic magma interaction in the Lamarck Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 99:272–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hammarstrom JM, Zen EA (1986) Aluminum in hornblende: an empirical igneous geobarometer. Am Mineral 71:1297–1313Google Scholar
  29. Hammer JE (2006) Influence of fO2 and cooling rate on the kinetics and energetics of Fe-rich basalt crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 248:618–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hammer JE, Rutherford MJ (2002) An experimental study of the kinetics of decompression-induced crystallization in silicic melt. J Geophys Res 107:2021Google Scholar
  31. Hawthorne FC, Oberti R, Harlow GE, Maresch WV, Martin RF, Schumacher JC, Welch MD (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. Am Mineral 97:2031–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heiken G, Eichelberger JC (1980) Eruptions at Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:443–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Higgins MD (1994) Numerical modeling of crystal shapes in thin sections: estimation of crystal habit and true size. Am Mineral 79:113–119Google Scholar
  34. Hildreth W (1981) Gradients in silicic magma chambers: implications for lithospheric magmatism. J Geophys Res 86:10153–10192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holland TJB, Blundy JD (1994) Non-ideal interactions in calcic amphiboles and their bearing on amphibole-plagioclase thermometry. Contrib Mineral Petrol 116:433–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Holness MB, Martin VM, Pyle DM (2005) Information about open-system magma chambers derived from textures in magmatic enclaves: the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece. Geol Mag 142:637–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huppert HE, Sparks RSJ, Turner JS (1982) Effects of volatiles on mixing in calc-alkaline magma systems. Nature 297:554–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kirkpatrick RJ, Klein L, Uhlmann DR, Hays JF (1979) Rates and processes of crystal growth in the system anorthite-albite. J Geophys Res 84:3671–3676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koyaguchi T (1986) Evidence for two-stage mixing in magmatic inclusions and rhyolitic lava domes on Niijima Island, Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 29:71–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lachenbruch AH, Sass JH, Munroe RJ, Moses TH (1976) Geothermal setting and simple heat conduction models for the Long Valley caldera. J Geophys Res 81:769–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leonard GS, Cole JW, Nairn IA, Self S (2002) Basalt triggering of the c. AD 1305 Kaharoa rhyolite eruption, Tarawera Volcanic Complex, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 115:461–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu Y, Anderson AT, Wilson CJN, Davis AM, Steele IM (2006) Mixing and differentiation in the Oruanui rhyolitic magma, Taupo, New Zealand: evidence from volatiles and trace elements in melt inclusions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lofgren GE (1971) Experimentally produced devitrification textures in natural rhyolitic glass. Geol Soc Am Bull 82:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lofgren GE (1974) An experimental study of plagioclase crystal morphology: isothermal crystallization. Am J Sci 274:243–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lofgren GE (1980) Experimental studies on the dynamic crystallization of silicate melts. In: Hargraves RB (ed) Physics of magmatic processes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 487–551Google Scholar
  46. Lofgren GE, Donaldson CH, Williams RJ, Mullins O, Usselman TM (1974) Experimentally reproduced textures and mineral chemistry of Apollo 15 quartz normative basalts. Proc Fifth Lunar Conf 1:549–567Google Scholar
  47. Marsh BD (1981) On the crystallinity, probability of occurrence, and rheology of lava and magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Martin VM, Holness MB, Pyle DM (2006a) Textural analysis of magmatic enclaves from the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 154:89–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Martin VM, Pyle DM, Holness MB (2006b) The role of crystal frameworks in the preservation of enclaves during magma mixing. Earth Planet Sci Lett 248:787–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Miyashiro A (1974) Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. Am J Sci 274:321–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morgan DJ, Jerram DA (2006) On estimating crystal shape for crystal size distribution analysis. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 154:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moussallam Y, Bani P, Curtis A, Barnie T, Moussallam M, Peters N, Schipper CI, Aiuppa A, Giudice G, Amigo A, Velasquez G, Cardona C (2016) Sustaining persistent lava lakes: Observations from high-resolution gas measurements at Villarica volcano, Chile. Earth Planet Sci Lett 454:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Murphy MD, Sparks RSJ, Barclay J, Carroll MR, Brewer TS (2000) Remobilization of andesite magma by intrusion of mafic magma at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies. J Petrol 41:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mutch EJF, Blundy JD, Tattitch BC, Cooper FJ, Brooker RA (2016) An experimental study of amphibole stability in low-pressure granitic magmas and a revised Al-in-hornblende geobarometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 171:85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ridolfi F, Renzulli A (2012) Calcic amphiboles in calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas: thermobarometric and chemometric empirical equations valid up to 1,130 °C and 2.2 GPa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:877–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ridolfi F, Renzulli A, Puerini M (2010) Stability and chemical equilibrium of amphibole in calc-alkaline magmas: an overview, new thermobarometric formulations and application to subduction-related volcanoes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:45–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sato H, Holtz F, Botcharnikov RE, Nakada S (2017) Intermittent generation of mafic enclaves in the 1991–1995 dacite of Unzen Volcano recorded in mineral chemistry. Contrib Mineral Petrol 172:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schneider CA, Rasband WS, Eliceiri KW (2012) NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat Methods 9:671–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shane P, Smith VC (2013) Using amphibole crystals to reconstruct magma storage temperatures and pressures for the post-caldera collapse volcanism at Okataina volcano. Lithos 156:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shea T, Hammer JE (2013) Kinetics of cooling- and decompression-induced crystallization in hydrous mafic-intermediate magmas. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 260:127–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sisson TW, Grove TL (1993) Experimental investigations of the role of H2O in calc-alkaline differentiation and subduction zone magmatism. Contrib Mineral Petrol 113:143–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sparks RSJ, Marshall LA (1986) Thermal and mechanical constraints on mixing between mafic and silicic magmas. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 29:99–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sparks SRJ, Sigurdsson H, Wilson L (1977) Magma mixing: a mechanism for triggering acid explosive eruptions. Nature 267:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sutton AN, Blake S, Wilson CJN (1995) An outline geochemistry of rhyolite eruptives from Taupo volcanic center, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:153–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Swanson SE (1977) Relation of nucleation and crystal-growth rate to development of granitic textures. Am Mineral 62:966–978Google Scholar
  66. Turner JS, Campbell IH (1986) Convection and mixing in magma chambers. Earth-Sci Rev 23:255–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Usselman TM, Lofgren GE (1976) The phase relations, textures, and mineral chemistries of high-titanium mare basalts as a function of oxygen fugacity and cooling rate. Proc 7th Lunar Sci Conf:1345–1363Google Scholar
  68. Usselman TM, Lofgren GE, Donaldson CH, Williams RJ (1975) Experimentally reproduced textures and mineral chemistries of high-titanium mare basalts. Proc 6th Lunar Sci Conf:997–1020Google Scholar
  69. Vandergoes MJ, Hogg AG, Lowe DJ, Newnham RM, Denton GH, Southon J, Barrell DJA, Wilson CJN, McGlone MS, Allan ASR, Almond PC, Petchey F, Dabell K, Dieffenbacher-Krall AC, Blaauw M (2013) A revised age for the Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra, a key marker for the Last Glacial Maximum in New Zealand. Quat Sci Rev 74:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wiebe RA (1974) Coexisting intermediate and basic magmas, Ingonish, Cape Breton Island. J Geol 82:74–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wiebe RA (2016) Mafic replenishments into floored silicic magma chambers. Am Mineral 101:297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wiebe RA, Collins WJ (1998) Depositional features and stratigraphic sections in granitic plutons: implications for the emplacement and crystallization of granitic magma. J Struct Geol 20:1273–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wiebe RA, Blair KD, Hawkins DP, Sabine CP (2002) Mafic injections, in situ hybridization, and crystal accumulation in the Pyramid Peak granite, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 114:909–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wiebe RA, Jellinek M, Markley MJ, Hawkins DP, Snyder D (2007) Steep schlieren and associated enclaves in the Vinalhaven granite, Maine: possible indicators for granite rheology. Contrib Mineral Petrol 153:121–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilson CJN (2001) The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption, New Zealand: an introduction and overview. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 112:133–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wilson CJN, Houghton BF, Lloyd EF (1986) Volcanic history and evolution of the Maroa-Taupo area, central North Island. In Smith IEM (ed), Late Cenozoic volcanism in New Zealand. Roy Soc NZ Bulletin 23:194–223Google Scholar
  77. Wilson CJN, Blake S, Charlier BLA, Sutton AN (2006) The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption, Taupo volcano, New Zealand: development, characteristics and evacuation of a large rhyolitic magma body. J Petrol 47:35–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography, Environment and Earth SciencesVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.School of EnvironmentUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  4. 4.New Zealand Petroleum and MineralsWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations