Advertisement

Lung

, Volume 196, Issue 1, pp 27–31 | Cite as

Cigarette Smoke Induces Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

  • Anita Somborac-Bačura
  • Sanja Popović-Grle
  • Vlasta Zovko
  • Tihana Žanić-Grubišić
COPD
  • 105 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to cigarette smoke may stimulate inflammatory response and activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) thus resulting in secretion of cellular proteases. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from PMN.

Methods

The study included 23 patients with stable COPD and 9 healthy controls. PMN were isolated from blood of all participants and exposed to 4% CSE or basal culture medium (0% CSE) for 20 h. MMP-9 concentration in PMN culture media was measured using the ELISA method.

Results

Exposure of PMN to 4% CSE did not cause cytotoxic effects, as determined by no changes in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in PMN culture media when compared to untreated PMN (P = 0.689). In basal conditions, PMN of COPD patients released significantly more MMP-9 compared with PMN of healthy controls (P = 0.016). However, concentration ratio of MMP-9 released from PMN exposed to 4% CSE or 0% CSE of each participant was significantly higher for healthy subjects than for COPD patients (P = 0.025).

Conclusion

Cigarette smoke induces activation of PMN in healthy controls. However, chronically activated PMN in COPD patients could not be further stimulated by in vitro exposure to CSE. Constantly raised amount of MMP-9 released into the tissues may be involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix in the lungs as seen in COPD patients.

Keywords

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Cigarette smoke Matrix metalloproteinase-9 Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 

Abbreviations

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CSE

Cigarette smoke extract

FEV1

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FVC

Forced vital capacity

GOLD

Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease

IL

Interleukin

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

PMN

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financed by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Grant No. 006-0061245-0977).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    From the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) (2016) http://goldcopd.org/. Accessed 26 May 2017
  2. 2.
    Fischer BM, Pavlisko E, Voynow JA (2011) Pathogenic triad in COPD: oxidative stress, protease-antiprotease imbalance, and inflammation. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 6:413–421.  https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S10770 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Djekic UV, Gaggar A, Weathington NM (2009) Attacking the multi-tiered proteolytic pathology of COPD: new insights from basic and translational studies. Pharmacol Ther 121(2):132–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.09.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Overbeek SA, Braber S, Koelink PJ, Henricks PA, Mortaz E, LoTam Loi AT et al (2013) Cigarette smoke-induced collagen destruction; key to chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation? PLoS ONE 8(1):e55612.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055612 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Finlay GA, O’Driscoll LR, Russell KJ, D’Arcy EM, Masterson JB, FitzGerald MX et al (1997) Matrix metalloproteinase expression and production by alveolar macrophages in emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156(1):240–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Segura-Valdez L, Pardo A, Gaxiola M, Uhal BD, Becerril C, Selman M (2000) Upregulation of gelatinases A and B, collagenases 1 and 2, and increased parenchymal cell death in COPD. Chest 117(3):684–694CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cataldo D, Munaut C, Noël A, Frankenne F, Bartsch P, Foidart JM et al (2000) MMP-2- and MMP-9-linked gelatinolytic activity in the sputum from patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 123(3):259–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li W, Xu Y, Zhang Z (2005) Activity of matrix metalloproteinase in airway epithelial cells of COPD patients. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 25(2):151–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beeh KM, Beier J, Kornmann O, Buhl R (2003) Sputum matrix metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and their molar ratio in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and healthy subjects. Respir Med 97(6):634–639CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van den Steen PE, Dubois B, Nelissen I, Rudd PM, Dwek RA, Opdenakker G (2002) Biochemistry and molecular biology of gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 37(6):375–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bøyum A (1976) Isolation of lymphocytes, granulocytes and macrophages. Scand J Immunol Suppl 5:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    van der Toorn M, Slebos DJ, de Bruin HG, Leuvenink HG, Bakker SJ, Gans RO et al (2007) Cigarette smoke-induced blockade of the mitochondrial respiratory chain switches lung epithelial cell apoptosis into necrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292(5):L1211–L1218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cataldo D, Munaut C, Noël A, Frankenne F, Bartsch P, Foidart JM et al (2001) Matrix metalloproteinases and TIMP-1 production by peripheral blood granulocytes from COPD patients and asthmatics. Allergy 56(2):145–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedrichs B, Neumann U, Schüller J, Peck MJ (2014) Cigarette-smoke-induced priming of neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers for increased oxidative burst response is mediated by TNF-α. Toxicol In Vitro 28(7):1249–1258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2014.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mortaz E, Rad MV, Johnson M, Raats D, Nijkamp FP, Folkerts G (2008) Salmeterol with fluticasone enhances the suppression of IL-8 release and increases the translocation of glucocorticoid receptor by human neutrophils stimulated with cigarette smoke. J Mol Med 86(9):1045–1056.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-008-0360-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    MacNee W (2005) Pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2(4):258–266CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Van den Steen PE, Proost P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J, Opdenakker G (2000) Neutrophil gelatinase B potentiates interleukin-8 tenfold by aminoterminal processing, whereas it degrades CTAP-III, PF-4, and GRO-alpha and leaves RANTES and MCP-2 intact. Blood 96(8):2673–2681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mortaz E, Adcock IM, Ito K, Kraneveld AD, Nijkamp FP, Folkerts G (2010) Cigarette smoke induces CXCL8 production by human neutrophils via activation of TLR9 receptor. Eur Respir J 36(5):1143–1154.  https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00062209 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Somborac-Bačura
    • 1
  • Sanja Popović-Grle
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vlasta Zovko
    • 2
  • Tihana Žanić-Grubišić
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Biochemistry and Hematology, Faculty of Pharmacy and BiochemistryUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Clinical Hospital for Lung Diseases “Jordanovac”University Hospital Centre ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.School of MedicineUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations