Severe Hemoptysis Associated with Bacterial Pulmonary Infection: Clinical Features, Significance of Parenchymal Necrosis, and Outcome
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Severe hemoptysis (SH) associated with non-tuberculosis bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is poorly described, and the efficacy of the usual decision-making process is unknown. This study aimed at describing the clinical, radiological patterns, mechanism, and microbiological spectrum of SH related to bacterial LRTI, and assessing whether the severity of hemoptysis and the results of usual therapeutic strategy are influenced by the presence of parenchymal necrosis.
A single-center analysis of patients with SH related to bacterial LRTI from a prospective registry of consecutive patients with SH admitted to the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral center between November 1996 and May 2013.
Of 1504 patients with SH during the study period, 65 (4.3%) had SH related to bacterial LRTI, including non-necrotizing infections (n = 31), necrotizing pneumonia (n = 23), pulmonary abscess (n = 10), and excavated nodule (n = 1). The presence of parenchymal necrosis (n = 34, 52%) was associated with a more abundant bleeding (volume: 200 ml [70–300] vs. 80 ml [30–170]; p = 0.01) and a more frequent need for endovascular procedure (26/34; 76% vs. 9/31; 29%; p < 0.001). Additionally, in case of parenchymal necrosis, the pulmonary artery vasculature was involved in 16 patients (47%), and the failure rate of endovascular treatment was up to 25% despite multiple procedures.
Bacterial LRTI is a rare cause of SH. The presence of parenchymal necrosis is more likely associated with bleeding severity, pulmonary vasculature involvement, and endovascular treatment failure.
KeywordsHemoptysis Pulmonary vasculature Endovascular treatment Parenchymal necrosis Necrotizing pneumonia
Compliance with Ethical Standard
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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