Table 1 Overview of the disease-specific questionnaire results of the total patient cohort (n = 100) over time

From: Prospective study on health-related quality of life in patients before and after cochlear implantation

Disease-specific questionnaire Before implantation 3 months after implantation 6 months after implantation 12 months after implantation p value before implantation to 12 months after implantation Absolute change after 12 months
Nijmegen cochlear implant questionnaire (NCIQ)
 Overall 49.35 ± 17.40 63.52 ± 14.76 67.03 ± 13.14 68.64 ± 13.75 < 0.01 + 19.29
 Physical 56.37 ± 20.48 70.55 ± 16.36 74.49 ± 13.53 76.21 ± 14.63 < 0.01 + 19.84
 Basic sound perception 48.11 ± 22.28 67.26 ± 19.34 72.88 ± 13.99 74.12 ± 15.64   + 26.01
 Advanced sound perception 70.33 ± 22.62 80.39 ± 17.95 81.89 ± 17.50 84.58 ± 16.95   + 14.25
 Speech production 50.68 ± 24.37 64.01 ± 19.75 68.69 ± 18.54 69.92 ± 19.07   + 19.24
 Psychological 43.82 ± 18.38 55.89 ± 17.56 59.45 ± 15.87 59.72 ± 15.71 < 0.01 + 15.90
 Self-esteem 43.82 ± 18.38 55.89 ± 17.56 59.45 ± 15.87 59.72 ± 15.71   + 15.90
 Social 41.84 ± 15.98 56.38 ± 15.47 59.50 ± 15.12 61.45 ± 15.78 < 0.01 + 19.61
Activity limitations 42.05 ± 18.86 57.43 ± 17.77 60.16 ± 18.31 62.83 ± 18.67   + 20.78
Social interactions 41.63 ± 15.38 55.32 ± 16.01 58.84 ± 13.81 60.08 ± 14.87   + 18.45
Abbreviated profile of hearing aid benefit (APHAB)
 Overall 46.80% ± 13.03 46.16% ± 10.56 47.91% ± 11.63 46.57% ± 10.17 Without HA: 0.99 with HA: 0.24 − 0.23
 Ease of communication (EC) 61.15% ± 33.94 57.91% ± 34.35 58.05% ± 34.42 60.26% ± 33.11 Without HA: 0.29 with HA: 0.01 − 0.89
 Background noise (BN) 49.34% ± 11.62 50.41% ± 11.22 50.21% ± 10.69 50.66% ± 8.42 Without HA: 0.79 with HA: 0.56 + 1.32
 Reverberation (RV) 49.60% ± 15.16 49.29% ± 13.44 49.84% ± 12.01 48.83% ± 13.27 Without HA: 0.79 with HA: 0.72 − 0.77
 Aversiveness of sounds (AV) 28.70% ± 28.99 26.84% ± 27.41 30.26% ± 28.08 26.46% ± 26.13 Without HA: 0.02 with HA: 0.56 − 2.24
Hearing participation scale (HPS)
 Overall NA 0.58 ± 0.24 0.61 ± 0.24 0.61 ± 0.24 0.21* + 0.03
 Self-esteem NA 0.66 ± 0.26 0.66 ± 0.27 0.66 ± 0.27 0.75* 0
 Social handicap NA 0.57 ± 0.19 0.54 ± 0.18 0.54 ± 0.18 0.19* − 0.03
 Hearing handicap NA 0.60 ± 0.21 0.49 ± 0.21 0.49 ± 0.21 0.004* − 0.11
Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)
 Overall NA 75.57 ± 20.36 77.26 ± 18.63 74.84 ± 21.66 0.64* − 0.73
  1. Values are mean and standard deviation. Significant changes are marked in bold. Unlike NCIQ and APHAB scores, the p values of HPS and VAS scores were calculated from the 3-month to 12-month follow-up and are indicated with an asterisk
  2. NA not available, HA hearing aid