Our study aims to determine the influence of smoking or tobacco chewing and the association of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) polymorphism, where G is substituted by A at the position − 596 (IL-6 − 596 G/A) and substitution of G by cytosine (C) at position − 572 (IL-6 − 572 G/C) on the susceptibility of precancerous oral lesions and oral cancer.
Materials and methods
The participants consisted of 250 subjects among which 75 were suffering from oral cancer, 75 subjects with precancerous oral lesions and 100 were healthy controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphism study (SNP) was done by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP).
IL-6 − 596 G/A SNP revealed genotypes, GG, and GA in subjects with precancerous oral lesions and oral cancer, and AA genotype was not found in any subject. IL-6 − 596 G/A was strongly associated with oral precancerous lesions but not with oral cancer. The present study reports that smokers carrying GA for IL-6 − 596 G/A were at several folds higher risk of developing oral precancerous lesions. Smokers with GC and CC for IL-6 − 572 G/C were at higher risk of developing oral precancerous lesions. No significant interaction was observed between these habits and IL-6 − 596 G/A and IL-6 − 572 G/C SNP with oral cancer.
The interaction of variant A allele of IL-6 − 596 G/A and C allele of IL-6 − 572 G/C polymorphism with smoking and increases the risk of oral precancerous lesions. Tobacco chewing was not related with IL-6 − 596 G/A or IL-6 − 572 G/C in oral precancerous lesions or oral cancer.
The study will help to determine the susceptibility of individuals with smoking or chewing habits to the development of oral precancerous lesion and oral cancer by monitoring the IL-6 SNPs which can be used as a biomarker for risk determination.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the infrastructure support received from Amity University Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Campus carrying out this study.
The work was not funded by any funding agency. The infrastructure support was provided by Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Campus.
Conflict of interest
Mr. Yadvendra Shahi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dr Sayali Mukherjee declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Fahad M. Samadi declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article contains studies with human participants performed by the authors. All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Ethics Committee of King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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Shahi, Y., Mukherjee, S. & Samadi, F.M. Interaction of tobacco chewing and smoking habit with interleukin 6 promoter polymorphism in oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06620-z
- IL-6 − 596
- IL-6 − 572 oral cancer
- Oral precancerous lesions
- Tobacco chewers