European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 275, Issue 4, pp 857–865 | Cite as

Strengthening the case for gender-neutral and the nonavalent HPV vaccine

Review Article



The purpose of this review is to highlight the benefits of gender-neutral and the nonavalent human papillomavirus vaccination. Human papillomavirus infection is the most commonly sexually transmitted disease and is known to cause several types of cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal. 5% of cancers every year are attributable to human papillomavirus infection, with cervical cancer the most common and oropharyngeal cancer estimated to surpass the incidence of cervical cancer by 2020.


PubMed and MEDLINE were searched using the following search terms: [(human papillomavirus OR HPV) AND (vaccine OR vaccination)] AND [(gardasil OR gardasil9 OR cervarix OR quadrivalent OR nonavalent OR ninevalent) OR (gender neutral OR male)].


There are currently three different types of human papillomavirus vaccinations and range in cover from four to nine different strains known to cause human disease. Most countries currently only supply vaccination to females; however, recent data point towards both a personal benefit as well as a cost-effective population-based benefit with gender-neutral vaccination. Data from female vaccination only have shown the vaccine to be effective in preventing premalignant cervical lesions, and are believed to have the same effect for other human papillomavirus cancers. Male vaccination not only provides personal benefit but also has a “herd effect” for females by preventing the propagation of the virus.


Gender-neutral vaccination provides significant cost-effective benefits for preventing human papillomavirus-related diseases, and this effect is further enhanced by the use of the nonavalent vaccine.


HPV Vaccination Gardasil Gardasil9 Gender neutral 



The authors have no funding or financial relationships to disclose.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Research involving human participants and animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryBeaumont HospitalDublinIreland

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