Olfactory dysfunction and oxidative stress in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum



This study aimed to compare the first-trimester pregnancy serum total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and serum estradiol levels as well as the olfactory functions assessed using the brief smell identification test (BSIT) of women with healthy pregnancies and those with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG).


In this prospective study, 60 pregnant women in the first trimester of their pregnancies were divided into two groups: 30 pregnant women with HG (study group) and 30 healthy pregnant women (control group). The following parameters were compared in the HG group and the healthy controls: TOS, TAS, serum levels of estradiol (E2), and olfactory function, which was measured using BSIT.


Both groups were similar in terms of age, gravida, and parity. The mean total smell score was lower in the HG group than the healthy control group (p < 0.05). TOS was significantly higher in the HG group than the control group. TAS was significantly higher in the control group than the HG group (p < 0.05).


The removal of sharp odors that will trigger the perception of odor in pregnant women with HG can contribute to the effective control of this disease; moreover, adding fetal-safe antioxidants to the treatment can contribute to the effective control of this disease.

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This work was supported by the Kirikkale University Scientific Research Projects and Coordination Unit (project number 2014/078).

Author information




YŞ: Planning, designing, data collection, literature survey, statistical analysis, writing. GŞ: Planning, designing, data collection, literature survey, statistical analysis, writing. NBM: Planning, designing, literature survey, writing, submission. OKA: Planning, designing, literature survey.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nuray Bayar Muluk.

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All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Ethics committee approval was obtained from the Adana Training and Research Hospital Ethics Committee (Date: June 5, 2014 Number: 2014/19).

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The participants provided their signed informed consent.

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Şimşek, Y., Şimşek, G., Bayar Muluk, N. et al. Olfactory dysfunction and oxidative stress in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Gynecol Obstet (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-05998-9

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  • Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG)
  • Total oxidative status (TOS)
  • Total antioxidant status (TAS)
  • Brief smell identification test (BSIT)