Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 310, Issue 2, pp 95–106 | Cite as

Pemphigus trigger factors: special focus on pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus



Pemphigus is a general term for a rare group of autoimmune diseases which result in the formation of blisters on the skin and oral cavity. Although there is no way to prevent autoimmune diseases, some factors may trigger pemphigus initiation in susceptible individuals or be exacerbated in affected patients. Recognition of these triggers, based on the latest studies and experiences is essential and should be updated every few years. In this study, several triggers, including different drugs and treatments, diseases, vaccines, genetic factors, nutrients, micronutrients, pregnancy, stress, and various other triggers have been discussed. Some possible triggers, such as blood antigens and the effect of seasons have also been discussed briefly. Moreover, some protective factors against pemphigus have been reviewed. Considering the molecular mechanism of pemphigus and immune response alteration during this disease, some possible triggers have been suggested and discussed. Although those triggers may be a real threat, more studies are needed to support these hypotheses.


Pemphigus Drug-induced pemphigus Pemphigus trigger Pemphigus vulgaris Pemphigus foliaceus 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


There is no funding source.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Skin Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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