Co-ingestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein and a high-carbohydrate beverage influences the glycaemic, insulinaemic, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial



Plant-based proteins may have the potential to improve glycaemic and gastrointestinal hormone responses to foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two doses of pea protein on postprandial glycaemic, insulinaemic, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response following a high-carbohydrate beverage intake in healthy individuals.


In a single-blind, randomised, controlled, repeat measure, crossover design trial, thirty-one participants were randomly assigned to ingest 50 g glucose (Control), 50 g glucose with 25 g pea protein (Test 1) and 50 g glucose with 50 g pea protein (Test 2) on three separate days. Capillary blood samples (blood glucose and plasma insulin measurements) and venous blood samples (GIP and GLP-1 concentrations) were taken before each test and at fixed intervals for 180 min. The data were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman test.


Glucose incremental Area under the Curve (iAUC180) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) after Test 2 compared with Control (− 53%), after Test 1 compared with Control (− 31%) and after Test 2 compared with Test 1 (−32%). Insulin iAUC 180 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) for Test 1 (+ 28%) and Test 2 (+ 40%) compared with Control and for Test 2 (+ 17%) compared with Test 1 (p = 0.003). GIP and GLP-1 release showed no clear difference between Control and Pea protein drinks.


The consumption of pea protein reduced postprandial glycaemia and stimulated insulin release in healthy adults with a dose–response effect, supporting its role in regulating glycaemic and insulinaemic responses.

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We would like to thank all participants in this study. We would like to thank Nasim Soleymani Majd for her assistance with blood analysis and Jonathan Tammam for reviewing one of the drafts. This study was supported by a grant from Roquette Frères, France.


This study was supported by funding from Roquette Frères, France.

Author information




HL, PST, EA, LG-D and CL-M contributed to the development of the study protocol. Material preparation and data collection were performed by PST, IA, AS and TM. Data analysis was performed by PST, IA and HL. The first draft of the manuscript was written by HL. PST, LG-D and CL-M revised the subsequent drafts of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pariyarath Sangeetha Thondre.

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Conflict of interest

L Guérin-Deremaux and C Lefranc-Millot are employees of Roquette Frères. Roquette Frères did not play a part in the execution of the study or analysis of the results.

Ethics approval

The study was carried out in accordance with the declaration of World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was obtained from the University Research Ethics Committee (UREC) at Oxford Brookes University (UREC Registration No: 181259).

Informed consent

Participants were given full details of the study protocol and the opportunity to ask questions. All participants gave written informed consent prior to participation.

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Thondre, P.S., Achebe, I., Sampson, A. et al. Co-ingestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein and a high-carbohydrate beverage influences the glycaemic, insulinaemic, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Nutr (2021).

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  • Pea protein
  • Blood glucose
  • Insulin
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1