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Low adherence to the western and high adherence to the mediterranean dietary patterns could prevent colorectal cancer

  • Adela Castelló
  • Pilar Amiano
  • Nerea Fernández de Larrea
  • Vicente Martín
  • Maria Henar Alonso
  • Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  • Beatriz Pérez-Gómez
  • Rocío Olmedo-Requena
  • Marcela Guevara
  • Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon
  • Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos
  • Cristobal Llorens-Ivorra
  • Jose María Huerta
  • Rocío Capelo
  • Tania Fernández-Villa
  • Anna Díez-Villanueva
  • Carmen Urtiaga
  • Jesús Castilla
  • Jose Juan Jiménez-Moleón
  • Víctor Moreno
  • Verónica Dávila-Batista
  • Manolis Kogevinas
  • Nuria Aragonés
  • Marina Pollán
  • On behalf of MCC-Spain researchers
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

To assess if the associations found between three previously identified dietary patterns with breast, prostate and gastric cancer are also observed for colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods

MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected information of 1629 incident cases of CRC and 3509 population-based controls from 11 Spanish provinces. Western, Prudent and Mediterranean data-driven dietary patterns—derived in another Spanish case-control study—were reconstructed in MCC-Spain. Their association with CRC was assessed using mixed multivariable logistic regression models considering a possible interaction with sex. Risk by tumor site (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) was evaluated using multinomial regression models.

Results

While no effect of the Prudent pattern on CRC risk was observed, a high adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased CRC risk for both males [ORfourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 1.45 (1.11;1.91)] and females [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.07;2.09)] but seem to be confined to distal colon [ORfourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 2.02 (1.44;2.84)] and rectal [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.46 (1.05;2.01)] tumors. The protective effect of the Mediterranean dietary pattern against CRC was observed for both sexes [males: ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.71 (0.55;0.92); females: ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40;0.77)] and for all cancer sites: proximal colon [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.51;0.97)], distal colon [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.48;0.89)], and rectum (ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.60 (0.45;0.81)].

Conclusion

Our results are consistent with most of the associations previously found between these patterns and breast, prostate and gastric cancer risk and indicate that consuming whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish and avoiding red and processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, juices, convenience food, and sauces might reduce CRC risk.

Keywords

Colonic neoplasms Rectal neoplasms Prevention and control Principal component analysis Dietary patterns Diet Diet, Western Diet, Mediterranean 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Carlos III Institute of Health grants (PI12/00488, PI12/00265, PI12/00715, PI12/01270, PI11/01403, PI11/01889, PI11/00226, PI11/01810, PI11/02213, PI09/00773, PI09/01286, PI09/01903, PI09/02078, PI09/01662, PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI08/1359), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (IJCI-2014-20900), Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI-0306-2011; PI-0571-2009); Catalan Government DURSIgrant (2014SGR647);Instituto de Salud Carlos III, co-funded by FEDER funds—a way to build Europe—PI14-00613; Fundación Marqués de Valdecilla (API 10/09); Acción Transversal del Cancer, approved by the Spanish Ministry Council on October 11, 2007; Red Temática de Investigación del Cáncer del ISCIII (RD12/0036/0036); Junta de Castilla y León (LE22A10-2); Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (2009-S0143); Conselleria de Sanitat de la Generalitat Valenciana (AP_061/10); Recercaixa (2010ACUP 00310); Regional Government of the Basque Country; Consejería de Sanidad de la Región de Murcia; European Commission grants (FOOD-CT-2006-036224-HIWATE); Spanish Association Against Cancer Scientific Foundation; Fundación Caja de Ahorros de Asturias; University of Oviedo. None of the sponsors intervened in any of the stages of the research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical standards

The MCC-Spain study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of each the participating institutions and has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All participants were informed about the study objectives and signed an informed consent.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2018_1674_MOESM1_ESM.docx (90 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 89 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adela Castelló
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pilar Amiano
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Nerea Fernández de Larrea
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vicente Martín
    • 6
  • Maria Henar Alonso
    • 7
    • 8
  • Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
    • 2
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
  • Beatriz Pérez-Gómez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rocío Olmedo-Requena
    • 2
    • 12
    • 13
  • Marcela Guevara
    • 2
    • 14
  • Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon
    • 2
    • 15
  • Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos
    • 16
  • Cristobal Llorens-Ivorra
    • 17
  • Jose María Huerta
    • 2
    • 18
  • Rocío Capelo
    • 19
  • Tania Fernández-Villa
    • 6
  • Anna Díez-Villanueva
    • 7
  • Carmen Urtiaga
    • 5
  • Jesús Castilla
    • 2
    • 14
  • Jose Juan Jiménez-Moleón
    • 2
    • 12
    • 13
  • Víctor Moreno
    • 7
    • 8
  • Verónica Dávila-Batista
    • 6
  • Manolis Kogevinas
    • 2
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
  • Nuria Aragonés
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marina Pollán
    • 1
    • 2
  • On behalf of MCC-Spain researchers
  1. 1.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for EpidemiologyCarlos III Institute of HealthMadridSpain
  2. 2.Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP)Carlos III Institute of HealthMadridSpain
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of AlcaláAlcalá de HenaresSpain
  4. 4.Public Health Department of GipuzkoaGovernment of the Basque CountrySan SebastiánSpain
  5. 5.Biodonostia Research InstituteSan SebastiánSpain
  6. 6.The Research Group in Gene-Environment and Health Interactions, Vegazana CampusUniversity of LeónLeónSpain
  7. 7.Unit of Biomarkers and Susceptibility, Cancer Prevention and Control ProgramCatalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) and IDIBELLL’Hospitalet de LlobregatSpain
  8. 8.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BarcelonaL’Hospitalet de LlobregatSpain
  9. 9.ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL)BarcelonaSpain
  10. 10.Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)BarcelonaSpain
  11. 11.IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute)BarcelonaSpain
  12. 12.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  13. 13.Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADAComplejo Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  14. 14.Public Health Institute of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  15. 15.IUOPA, University of Oviedo, Facultad de MedicinaOviedoSpain
  16. 16.Universidad de Cantabria, IDIVALSantanderSpain
  17. 17.Centro de Salud Pública de DéniaConsellería de Sanidad Universal y Salud PúblicaDeniaSpain
  18. 18.Department of EpidemiologyMurcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-ArrixacaMurciaSpain
  19. 19.Centro de Investigación en Salud y Medio Ambiente (CYSMA)Universidad de HuelvaHuelvaSpain

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