Prognostic impact of mean heart rate by Holter monitoring on long-term outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention



Previous studies have shown elevated admission heart rate (HR) was associated with worse outcome in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, the prognostic value of mean heart rate (MHR) with Holter monitoring remains unclear.


Our present study aims to evaluate the impact of MHR by Holter monitoring on long-term mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).


1013 STEMI patients were divided into four groups according to the quartiles of MHR by Holter monitoring, Q1 (< 66 bpm), Q2 66–72 bpm), Q3 (73–78 bpm), and Q4 (> 78 bpm). The endpoint was long-term all-cause mortality. The predictive value of admission HR, discharge HR, and MHR was compared with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.


Patients in Q4 were more likely to present with anterior MI, high Killip class, relatively lower admission blood pressure, significantly increased troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. During a median of 28.3 months follow up period, 91 patients (8.9%) died. The mortality in Q4 was significantly higher than in the other three groups (P < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, Q4 was associated with a 1.0-fold increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality (HR = 2.096, 95% CI 1.190–3.691, P = 0.010). ROC analysis shows MHR with Holter (AUC = 0.672) was superior to admission HR (AUC = 0.556) or discharge HR (AUC = 0.578).


MHR based on Holter monitoring provided important prognostic value and MHR > 78 bpm was independently associated with increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with STEMI, and its predictive validity was superior to admission or discharge HR.

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This work was supported by the basic science and frontier technology research project of Chongqing Yuzhong District Science and Technology Commission (20170404).

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Correspondence to Bi Huang or Suxin Luo.

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Shen, J., Liu, G., Yang, Y. et al. Prognostic impact of mean heart rate by Holter monitoring on long-term outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Clin Res Cardiol (2021).

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  • Mean heart rate
  • Holter monitoring
  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
  • Long-term mortality