Clinical Research in Cardiology

, Volume 107, Issue 6, pp 449–459 | Cite as

Temporal changes in outcomes of women and men undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion: 2005–2013

  • Aurel Toma
  • Barbara E. Stähli
  • Michael Gick
  • Miroslaw Ferenc
  • Kambis Mashayekhi
  • Heinz Joachim Buettner
  • Franz-Josef Neumann
  • Catherine Gebhard
Original Paper



Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has undergone impressive progress during the last decade, both in strategies and equipment. It is unknown whether technical refinement has translated into improved outcomes in women undergoing CTO-PCI.

Method and results

A total of 2002 consecutive patients (17% females, mean age 65.2 ± 10.7 years) undergoing PCI of at least one CTO lesion at our center between 01/2005 and 12/2013 were evaluated. The incidence of adverse events was compared between two time series (2005–2009 and 2010–2013). A significant increase in adverse lesion characteristics over time was noted in both, women and men (p < 0.001), while technical success rates significantly increased in men but not in women (ptrend < 0.001 in men and ptrend=0.9 in women). The incidence of procedural complications was significantly higher in women as compared to men and increased over the study period in women (p < 0.05) but not in men. Accordingly, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified female sex as a strong predictor of PCI-related complications in recent years, while this was not the case in earlier years (adjusted HR 2.03, 95% CI 0.62–6.6, p = 0.2 and adjusted HR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8–12.3, p = 0.002, respectively, p < 0.001 for log LH ratio). In addition, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after a 3-year follow-up significantly declined in men (log rank = 0.046), while no changes were observed in women.


While higher success rates and a reduced rate of MACE have been achieved in men, the incidence of procedural complications in women undergoing CTO-PCI has increased over time.


Chronic total occlusion Women Temporal trend Percutaneous coronary intervention 


Author contributions

All authors take responsibility for all aspects of the reliability and freedom from bias of the data presented and their discussed interpretation.


This work was supported by grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Olga Mayenfisch Foundation, Switzerland, the OPO Foundation, Switzerland, the Novartis Foundation, Switzerland, and the Swissheart Foundation (to CG).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiology and Angiology IIUniversity Heart Center Freiburg, Bad KrozingenBad KrozingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyCharité Berlin, University MedicineBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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