Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 34, Issue 7, pp 701–713 | Cite as

Congenital tracheal malformations

  • Patricio Varela
  • Michelle Torre
  • Claudia Schweiger
  • Hiroki Nakamura
Review Article


Congenital malformations of the trachea include a variety of conditions that cause respiratory distress in neonates and infants. A number of anomalies are self-limiting while others are life-threatening and require immediate therapy. The prevalence of congenital airway malformations has been estimated to range between 0.2 and 1 in 10,000 live births. The most frequent congenital tracheal malformations are: tracheomalacia, congenital tracheal stenosis, laryngotracheal cleft and tracheal agenesis. The management of congenital tracheal malformations is complex and requires an individualized approach delivered by a multidiscipilinary team within centralized units with the necessary expertise.


Congenital malformations Tracheomalacia Tracheal stenosis Aortopexy Tracheoplasty Tracheal stents 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricio Varela
    • 1
  • Michelle Torre
    • 2
  • Claudia Schweiger
    • 3
  • Hiroki Nakamura
    • 4
  1. 1.Program Director Pediatric Airway Unit, Mackenna Children’s Hospital, Clínica Las Condes Medical CenterUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Director Pediatric Airway UnitGaslinni InstituteGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Pediatric Otolaryngology and Head and Neck SurgeonHospital de Clínicas de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.National Children’s Research Centre, Our Lady’s Children’s HospitalDublinIreland

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