Climate Dynamics

, Volume 50, Issue 7–8, pp 2925–2934 | Cite as

Appraising timing response of paleoenvironmental proxies to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean over the last 20 kyr

  • Marta Rodrigo-Gámiz
  • Francisca Martínez-Ruiz
  • Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar
  • Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza
  • Miguel Ortega-Huertas
Article

Abstract

The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. Further cross-spectral analyses on these time series reveal leads–lags in the 1400 year climate cycle. Considering as reference a terrigenous input proxy (the K/Al ratio), all the paleoenvironmental proxies displayed time shifts varying from ca. 700 year to ca. 350 year. SST and salinity variations show a first leaded response with the inflow of cold and less salty Atlantic waters. Followed by a time lead of 525 year, progresively arid conditions with an increase of eolian dust transport to the area, given by the Zr/Al signal, are observed. The intensification of dust transport could have triggered a latest biological response, lead by 350 year, with an increase of productivity, as suggested by the Ba/Al ratio. Lastly changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, indicated by a selected redox proxy (the U/Th ratio), are observed. These results support that the oceanic response triggered the atmospheric response to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean. Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation mode and in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations with variations in the monsoon activity or Saharan winds system, are considered as main forcing mechanisms, with a complex relationship of the involved phenomena.

Keywords

Cross-spectral Bond cycle Western Mediterranean Marine record Paleoenvironmental proxies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)-cofinanced Grants CGL2015-66835-P, CGL2015-66830-R, and CGL2015-71510-R (Secretaría de Estado de Investigación MINECO), Research Groups RNM 179, RNM 178 (Junta de Andalucía), and the Research Excellence Unit (UCE-PP2016-05) of the University of Granada. We are also grateful to the oceanographic cruise Training-Through-Research Programme (UNESCO-Moscow State University). M. Rodrigo-Gámiz acknowledges funding from “Ayudas para el mantenimiento de la actividad de los grupos de investigación de la UGR” within the program “Fortalecimiento de las capacidades de I + D + I” from the University of Granada, and from the Andalucía Talent Hub Program co-funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (COFUND—Grant Agreement No 291780) and the Junta de Andalucía. We thank the Editor J.-C. Duplessy and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

Supplementary material

382_2017_3782_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (585 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 585 KB)

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT)Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Granada (CSIC-UGR)ArmillaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Mineralogía y PetrologíaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Estratigrafía y PaleontologíaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME)MadridSpain

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