The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional and zonal components of global atmospheric circulation.
Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation New dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations Three-dimensional vorticity equations Simplified dynamical equations
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41475068, 41475064, 41530531 and 41630421) and the Foundation of Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education in Lanzhou University. All of the authors express thank to the editor and anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions and comments.
Bayr T, Dommenget D, Martin T, Power SB (2014) The eastward shift of the Walker circulation in response to global warming and its relationship to ENSO variability. Clim Dyn 43:2747–2763. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2091-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen S, Wei K, Chen W, Song L (2014) Regional changes in the annual mean Hadley circulation in recent decades. J Geophys Res 119:7815–7832. doi:10.1002/2014jd021540Google Scholar
Chou J (1974) A problem of using past data in numerical weather forecasting. Sci China Ser A 6:814–825Google Scholar
Chou J (1983) Some properties of operators and the effect of initial condition. Acta Meteorol Sin 41:385–392 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
Davis NA, Birner T (2013) Seasonal to multidecadal variability of the width of the tropical belt. J Geophys Res 118:7773–7787. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50610Google Scholar
Deng B, Liu H, Chou J (2010) An analysis on large-scale air–sea interactive linkages between the tropical Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean during ENSO events. J Trop Meteorol 16:305–312Google Scholar
Hu S, Cheng J, Chou J (2017) Novel three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: generalization of traditional two-dimensional decomposition. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3530-3Google Scholar
Ma S, Zhou T (2016) Robust strengthening and westward shift of the tropical Pacific Walker circulation during 1979–2012: a comparison of 7 sets of reanalysis data and 26 CMIP5 models. J Clim 29:3097–3118. doi:10.1175/Jcli-D-15-0398.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGregor S, Timmermann A, Stuecker MF, England MH, Merrifield M, Jin FF, Chikamoto Y (2014) Recent Walker circulation strengthening and Pacific cooling amplified by Atlantic warming. Nat Clim Change 4:888–892. doi:10.1038/Nclimate2330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossby CG (1939) Relation between variations in the intensity of the zonal circulation of the atmosphere and the displacements of the semi-permanent centers of action. J Mar Res 2:38–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar