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Fig. 1 | Climate Dynamics

Fig. 1

From: Atmospheric impacts of sea ice decline in CO2 induced global warming

Fig. 1

High latitude annual mean (60°–90°N) and zonal annual mean surface air temperature anomalies. ac Temperature responses to CO2 quadrupling in simulations with active sea ice (a), no sea ice (zero ice treatment) (b) and prescribed ice (c) (all anomalies are statistically significant at the 95 % confidence level). Blue and white contour lines indicate 0.15 and 0.9 autumn (SON) ice fractions. In the active ice case (a) the Arctic is seasonally ice free, while in the prescribed ice simulation (c) the preindustrial sea ice cover is maintained. df Zonal temperature anomalies in 2 × CO2 (yellow), 4 × CO2 (orange), 6 × CO2 (red) and 8 × CO2 (brown) simulations relative 1 × CO2, for active (d), zero (e) and prescribed (f) sea ice treatments. Standard errors (2σ-values) for all the values shown in panels df are smaller than 0.5 K

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