We conducted sensitivity experiments using a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model to examine the asymmetry between the hydrological responses to instantaneous positive and negative CO2 forcing and the impact of the CO2 physiological effects (CDPEs) on these responses. This study focuses on the fast response occurring on time scales shorter than 1 year after imposing CO2 forcing. Experiments investigating the CO2 physiological effect show that the fast response of precipitation to positive CO2 forcing is a decrease in the global and annual mean, whereas that of negative forcing is an increase the global and annual mean precipitation. The fast global precipitation response to negative forcing is stronger than the response to positive forcing. In contrast, the experiments without the CDPE reveal similar magnitudes of the fast global precipitation responses to negative and positive CO2 forcing. Significant differences in the magnitudes of the fast precipitation response due to the CDPE are found in tropical regions such as the Amazon Basin, the Maritime Continents, and tropical Africa, where C3-type plants are common. The stomatal conductance of plant leaves is decreased by both positive and negative CO2 forcing, which suppress the transpiration from the leaves. Consequently, the CDPE enhances the asymmetry of the fast precipitation responses to positive and negative CO2 forcing. The asymmetric impact of CDPE requires a careful evaluation of future hydrological changes which is constrained by paleoclimate evidence.
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This work was supported by the Program for Risk Information on Climate Change (SOUSEI program) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan and the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-10) of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. The Earth Simulator at JAMSTEC and an NEC SX at NIES were employed to perform the AOGCM simulations. We thank two anonymous reviewers for helping to significant improve this paper.
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Abe, M., Shiogama, H., Yokohata, T. et al. Asymmetric impact of the physiological effect of carbon dioxide on hydrological responses to instantaneous negative and positive CO2 forcing. Clim Dyn 45, 2181–2192 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2465-1
- Carbon dioxide physiological effect
- Hydrological response
- Carbon dioxide forcing
- Land surface model
- General circulation model