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Table 4 Annual (left column of each cell) heat budget difference (Wm−2) at the surface between the C-AER and the C-NO simulation ensemble means over northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea and Europe

From: Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model

DRF Northern Africa Mediterranean Sea Europe
SW down surface −20.7 ± 0.0 −9.8 ± 0.0 −16.2 ± 0.0 −8.9 ± 0.1 −11.7 ± 0.2 −4.9 ± 0.0
−25.7 ± 0.1 −21.1 ± 0.2 −15.2 ± 0.2
−34.9 ± 0.1 −22.3 ± 0.1 −18.5 ± 0.4
−12.6 ± 0.1 −12.6 ± 0.1 −8.3 ± 0.2
LW down surface −0.2 ± 0.1 −0.4 ± 0.0 −1.8 ± 0.1 −1.1 ± 0.1 −1.2 ± 0.0 −0.8 ± 0.1
0.1 ± 0.1 −1.5 ± 0.1 −1.7 ± 0.1
0.6 ± 0.1 −2.3 ± 0.2 −1.4 ± 0.0
−0.9 ± 0.1 −2.5 ± 0.1 −0.9 ± 0.1
SW up surface (loss) −5.9 ± 0.0 −2.8 ± 0.0 −1.1 ± 0.0 −0.6 ± 0.0 −2.0 ± 0.0 −1.0 ± 0.0
−7.4 ± 0.0 −1.4 ± 0.0 −2.5 ± 0.0
−10.0 ± 0.0 −1.5 ± 0.0 −3.1 ± 0.1
−3.6 ± 0.0 −0.8 ± 0.0 −1.4 ± 0.0
LW up surface (loss) −5.0 ± 0.1 −3.2 ± 0.0 −2.9 ± 0.0 −2.0 ± 0.1 −2.4 ± 0.1 −1.3 ± 0.0
−5.8 ± 0.0 −2.8 ± 0.0 −2.8 ± 0.1
−7.0 ± 0.1 −3.6 ± 0.1 −3.3 ± 0.3
−4.1 ± 0.1 −3.1 ± 0.1 −2.2 ± 0.1
Latent heat (loss) −1.4 ± 0.0 −0.5 ± 0.0 −11.0 ± 0.1 −8.8 ± 0.2 −3.9 ± 0.1 −1.5 ± 0.0
−1.4 ± 0.0 −8.1 ± 0.1 −6.9 ± 0.1
−2.6 ± 0.0 −13.6 ± 0.0 −5.0 ± 0.4
−1.1 ± 0.1 −13.5 ± 0.2 −2.2 ± 0.1
Sensible heat (loss) −8.5 ± 0.0 −3.6 ± 0.0 −1.7 ± 0.0 −1.7 ± 0.0 −4.7 ± 0.1 −1.4 ± 0.0
−10.8 ± 0.0 −1.7 ± 0.0 −5.1 ± 0.1
−14.6 ± 0.0 −1.7 ± 0.0 −8.7 ± 0.5
−5.0 ± 0.0 −1.7 ± 0.1 −3.4 ± 0.1
Total heat budget 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 −1.5 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 −0.5 ± 0.0
−0.2 ± 0.0 −8.5 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.0
0.0 ± 0.0 −4.4 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.0
0.2 ± 0.0 4.0 ± 0.3 0.1 ± 0.0
  1. Parameters are the downward and upward SW and LW radiations at the surface as well as the latent and sensible heat losses. All fluxes are counted positively, and total = \(\hbox {SW}_d + \hbox {LW}_d -\hbox {SW}_u - \hbox {LW}_u - \hbox {latent}_{\mathrm{loss}} - \hbox {sensible}_{\mathrm{loss}}\). Seasonal averages (DJF / MAM / JJA / SON) are indicated on the right column of each cell for the same regions and parameters. The confidence interval at the level 0.05 is indicated (calculated from the ensemble spread)