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Table 2 Annual (left column of each cell) SW and LW direct radiative forcing averages (Wm−2) at the surface and at TOA for the C-AER simulation ensemble mean over northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Europe and the Mediterranean basin (29–46.5°N, 10.5°W–38.5°E)

From: Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model

Region Northern Africa Mediterranean Sea Europe Mediterranean basin
Data C-AER RegCM4 C-AER RegCM4 C-AER RegCM4 C-AER MODIS
SW −19.4 −10.8 −14.9 −9.7 −20.9 −11.9 −13.6 −7.9 −14.7 −6.4 −10.3 −5.8 −19.9 ± 0.6 −11.2± 0.6 −16.5 ± 1.0 −7.0 ± 2.9
−23.3 −20.2 −26.0 −19.5 −18.7 −13.6 −24.5 ± 0.9 −20.9 ± 3.9
Surf −30.2 −18.5 −28.4 −15.3 −22.7 −12.4 −28.0 ± 1.3 −26.2 ± 1.0
−13.3 −11.4 −17.2 −11.5 −10.9 −9.2 −16.0 ± 0.8 −11.8 ± 5.7
SW −1.4 −2.8 0.1 −1.1 −10.5 −6.2 −5.5 −3.8 −6.5 −3.0 −3.1 −2.3 −7.8 ± 0.3 −4.9 ± 0.3 −2.4 ± 0.3 −0.9 ± 0.1
−1.1 0.7 −13.3 −8.2 −8.2 −4.6 −9.4 ± 0.5 −2.4 ± 0.7
TOA 0.8 1.2 −13.5 −5.5 −9.3 −2.5 −9.5 ± 0.5 −4.3 ± 0.5
−2.4 −0.6 −9.3 −4.7 −5.6 −3.0 −7.4 ± 0.4 −1.9 ± 0.5
LW 2.9 1.5 5.8 4.2 1.1 0.7 1.7 1.1 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.5     
3.4 8.6 1.3 3.1 0.5 1.2     
Surf 4.8 6.5 1.7 1.3 1.0 0.7     
2.0 4.1 0.8 1.3 0.6 0.7     
LW 1.9 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.1     
2.1 1.5 0.8 1.0 0.4 0.6     
TOA 3.1 1.6 1.0 0.5 0.9 0.3     
1.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.2     
  1. For the first three regions, the values from Nabat et al. (2012) are indicated (RegCM-4) and for the fourth region, the values from Papadimas et al. (2012) are indicated (calculations from MODIS using a radiative transfer model). Seasonal averages (DJF / MAM / JJA / SON) are indicated on the right column of each cell for the same regions and parameters. The confidence interval for the CNRM-RCSM4 values at the level 0.05 is ±0.0 Wm−2 for all the regions and parameters (calculated from the ensemble spread). An estimation of interannual variability has been indicated for the Mediterranean basin (right-most column)