Simulated impacts of two types of ENSO events on tropical cyclone activity in the western North Pacific: large-scale atmospheric response
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The present paper uses an atmospheric general circulation model to explore large-scale atmospheric response to various El Niño-Southern Oscillation events associated with tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific. The simulated response is basically consistent with and confirms the observed results. For eastern Pacific warm (EPW) event, anomalously wet ascent occurs over the tropical central/eastern Pacific and dry descent is over the western Pacific. This Walker circulation is associated with anomalous low-level convergence, reduced vertical wind shear (VWS), and enhanced genesis potential index (GPI) in the southeast sub-region. These are consistent with the observed increase of the TC formation in the southeast sub-region but decrease in the northwest sub-region during July–September (JAS) and the increase in the southwest and northwest sub-regions during October–December (OND). In addition, the strong westerly anomalies of the TC steering flow prevail in the East Asian coast, suppressing the TC northwestward or westward tracks. For eastern Pacific cold (EPC) event, all of the simulated variables show almost a mirror image of EPW. For central Pacific warm event, the anomalous Walker circulation shifts westward because of the westward shift of the maximum SST anomaly forcing. The anomalous subsidence associated with the western branch of the Walker circulation during OND shifts northward to the South China Seas, resulting in a decrease of the TC genesis there. The TC steering flow patterns during JAS are favorable for TCs to make landfall over Japan and Korea. Compared with EPC, the descending motion in the central/eastern Pacific is much stronger for central Pacific cold (CPC) event, accompanied by more enhanced VWS and reduced GPI in the southeast sub-region. Therefore, CPC provides a more adverse environment to the TC formation there during JAS and OND, consistent with the observed decrease of TC formation there. Moreover, the easterly anomalies of the TC steering flow dominate the tropics during JAS, enhancing TC activity in the east coast of China. Additionally, the convection over the western Pacific moves to the South China Sea during OND, favoring the TC genesis there.
KeywordsTropical Cyclone Western North Pacific Walker Circulation Vertical Wind Shear Tropical Cyclone Activity
This work was supported by Grants from the National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB430301, 2012CB956203 and 2010CB950400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (40830955, and 41176013), the Changjiang Scholar Program, the Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZCX2-YW-QN203), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Program Office.
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