Climate Dynamics

, Volume 42, Issue 9–10, pp 2627–2637 | Cite as

Examination of multi-perturbation methods for ensemble prediction of the MJO during boreal summer

  • In-Sik KangEmail author
  • Pyong-Hwa Jang
  • Mansour Almazroui


The impact of initialization and perturbation methods on the ensemble prediction of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation was investigated using 20-year hindcast predictions of a coupled general circulation model. The three perturbation methods used in the present study are the lagged-averaged forecast (LAF) method, the breeding method, and the empirical singular vector (ESV) method. Hindcast experiments were performed with a prediction interval of 10 days for extended boreal summer (May–October) seasons over a 20 year period. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) eigenvectors of the initial perturbations depend on the individual perturbation method used. The leading EOF eigenvectors of the LAF perturbations exhibit large variances in the extratropics. Bred vectors with a breeding interval of 3 days represent the local unstable mode moving northward and eastward over the Indian and western Pacific region, and the leading EOF modes of the ESV perturbations represent planetary-scale eastward moving perturbations over the tropics. By combining the three perturbation methods, a multi-perturbation (MP) ensemble prediction system for the intraseasonal time scale was constructed, and the effectiveness of the MP prediction system for the Madden and Julian oscillation (MJO) prediction was examined in the present study. The MJO prediction skills of the individual perturbation methods are all similar; however, the MP‐based prediction has a higher level of correlation skill for predicting the real-time multivariate MJO indices compared to those of the other individual perturbation methods. The predictability of the intraseasonal oscillation is sensitive to the MJO amplitude and to the location of the dominant convective anomaly in the initial state. The improvement in the skill of the MP prediction system is more effective during periods of weak MJO activity.


Multi-perturbation ensemble prediction Perturbation methods Boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation Madden–Julian oscillation Predictability 



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (NRF-2009-C1AAA001-2009-0093042) and also by the Brain Korea 21 project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • In-Sik Kang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pyong-Hwa Jang
    • 1
  • Mansour Almazroui
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Meteorology, Center of Excellence for Climate Change ResearchKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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