Climate Dynamics

, Volume 42, Issue 9–10, pp 2509–2520 | Cite as

MJO prediction in the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2

  • Wanqiu WangEmail author
  • Meng-Pai Hung
  • Scott J. Weaver
  • Arun Kumar
  • Xiouhua Fu
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2)


The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal climate variability and has significant modulation of global climate variations and attendant societal impacts. Advancing prediction of the MJO using state of the art observational data and modeling systems is thus a necessary goal for improving global intraseasonal climate prediction. MJO prediction is assessed in the NOAA Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) based on its hindcasts initialized daily for 1999–2010. The analysis focuses on MJO indices taken as the principal components of the two leading EOFs of combined 15°S–15°N average of 200-hPa zonal wind, 850-hPa zonal wind and outgoing longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The CFSv2 has useful MJO prediction skill out to 20 days at which the bivariate anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) drops to 0.5 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) increases to the level of the prediction with climatology. The prediction skill also shows a seasonal variation with the lowest ACC during the boreal summer and highest ACC during boreal winter. The prediction skills are evaluated according to the target as well as initial phases. Within the lead time of 10 days the ACC is generally greater than 0.8 and RMSE is less than 1 for all initial and target phases. At longer lead time, the model shows lower skills for predicting enhanced convection over the Maritime Continent and from the eastern Pacific to western Indian Ocean. The prediction skills are relatively higher for target phases when enhanced convection is in the central Indian Ocean and the central Pacific. While the MJO prediction skills are improved in CFSv2 compared to its previous version, systematic errors still exist in the CFSv2 in the maintenance and propagation of the MJO including (1) the MJO amplitude in the CFSv2 drops dramatically at the beginning of the prediction and remains weaker than the observed during the target period and (2) the propagation in the CFSv2 is too slow. Reducing these errors will be necessary for further improvement of the MJO prediction.


Root Mean Square Error Outgoing Longwave Radiation Prediction Skill Climate Forecast System Reanalysis Anomaly Correlation Coefficient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wanqiu Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Meng-Pai Hung
    • 1
  • Scott J. Weaver
    • 1
  • Arun Kumar
    • 1
  • Xiouhua Fu
    • 2
  1. 1.NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Center for Weather and Climate PredictionCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.IPRC, SOESTUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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