The multidimensional morphological characteristics (including scale, horizontal shape and 3D morphology) of precipitation areas over the Tibetan Plateau in summer were studied using 15 years (1998–2012) of observational data from the precipitation radar onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. As the scale of the precipitation area increased from 20 to 150 km, the near-surface rain rate (RRav) of the precipitation area increased by up to 78% (from ∼1.12 to ∼2 mm h−1). Linear precipitation areas had the lowest median RRav (∼1 mm h−1 over the eastern Tibetan Plateau), whereas square-shaped precipitation areas had the highest median RRav (∼1.58 mm h−1 over the eastern Tibetan Plateau). The 3D morphology was defined as the ratio of the average vertical scale to the average horizontal scale, where a large value corresponds to thin and tall, and a small value corresponds to plump and short. Thin-and-tall precipitation areas and plump-and-short precipitation areas had a greater median RRav, whereas the precipitation areas with a moderate 3D morphology had the lowest median RRav. The vertical structure of the precipitation-area reflectivity was sensitive to both size and 3D morphology, but was not sensitive to the horizontal shape. The relationship between RRav and the morphological characteristics was most significant over the southern slopes of the Tanggula Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau east of 100°E. The morphological characteristics of precipitation areas are therefore closely related to the intensity of precipitation and could potentially be used to forecast precipitation and verify numerical models.
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The data can be obtained from the websites https://pmm.nasa.gov/data-access/downloads/trmm for TRMM PR. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91837310, 41675041, 41620104009 and 41675043), the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) program (Grant No. 2019QZKK0104), Fundamental Research Funds for the Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan project (Grant No. 201903010036), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities from Sun Yat-Sen University (Grant No. 20lgpy19), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2020M672943), and the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies (Grant No. 2020B1212060025).
• Morphological characteristics of precipitation areas were constructed and analyzed based on 15 years of TRMM PR observations.
• Linear precipitation areas had the lowest rain rate, whereas square-shaped precipitation areas had the highest rain rate.
• The vertical structure of the precipitation-area reflectivity was sensitive to both size and 3D morphology.
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Chen, Y., Zhang, A., Fu, Y. et al. Morphological Characteristics of Precipitation Areas over the Tibetan Plateau Measured by TRMM PR. Adv. Atmos. Sci. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-020-0233-1
- precipitation areas
- morphological characteristics
- Tibetan Plateau
- TRMM PR