Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 467–480 | Cite as

Converting natural evergreen broadleaf forests to intensively managed moso bamboo plantations affects the pool size and stability of soil organic carbon and enzyme activities

  • Ziwen Lin
  • Yongfu Li
  • Caixian Tang
  • Yu Luo
  • Weijun Fu
  • Xiaoqing Cai
  • Yongchun Li
  • Tian Yue
  • Peikun Jiang
  • Shuaidong Hu
  • Scott X. Chang
Original Paper


Land-use change significantly affects the soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and microbial activities. However, the roles of chemical composition of SOC and enzyme activity in the change in the SOC mineralization rate caused by land-use change are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of land-use conversion from natural evergreen broadleaf forests to intensively managed moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations on the pool size and mineralization rate of SOC, as well as the activities of C-cycling enzymes (invertase, β-glucosidase, and cellobiohydrolase) and dehydrogenase. Four paired soil samples in two layers (0–20 and 20–40 cm) were taken from adjacent evergreen broadleaf forest-moso bamboo plantation sites in Lin’an County, Zhejiang Province, China. Soil water-soluble organic C (WSOC), hot-water-soluble organic C (HWSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), readily oxidizable C (ROC), the activities of C-cycling enzymes and dehydrogenase, and mineralization rates of SOC were measured. The chemical composition of SOC was also determined with 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The conversion of broadleaf forests to bamboo plantations reduced SOC stock as well as WSOC, HWOC, MBC, and ROC concentrations (P < 0.05), decreased O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C contents, but increased alkyl C content and the alkyl C to O-alkyl (A/O-A) ratio, suggesting that the land-use conversion significantly altered the chemical structure of SOC. Further, such land-use change lowered (P < 0.05) the SOC mineralization rate and activities of the four enzymes in the 0–20-cm soil. The decreased SOC mineralization rate associated with the land-use conversion was closely linked to the decreased labile organic C concentration and soil enzyme activities. The results demonstrate that converting broadleaf forests to moso bamboo plantations markedly decreased the total and labile SOC stocks and reveal that this conversion decreased the mineralization rate of SOC via changing the chemical composition of SOC and decreasing activities of C-cycling enzymes. Management practices that enhance C input into the soil are recommended to mitigate the depletion of SOC associated with land-use conversion to moso bamboo plantations.


Labile organic C Land-use change Mineralization rate 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance Soil carbon cycle 



We thank Zhenming Shen for his assistance in the site selection for this experiment. We thank the two anonymous reviewers and Editor-in-Chief for their constructive comments that greatly improved the quality of a previous version of the manuscript.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31470626), the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Zhejiang Province (No. LR18C160001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY15C160006).


  1. Ahmad W, Singh B, Dijkstra FA, Dalal RC (2013) Inorganic and organic carbon dynamics in a limed acid soil are mediated by plants. Soil Biol Biochem 57:549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Álvaro-Fuentes J, Plaza-Bonilla D, Arrúe JL, Lampurlanés J, Cantero-Martínez C (2014) Soil organic carbon storage in a no-tillage chronosequence under Mediterranean conditions. Plant Soil 376:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ameloot N, Sleutel S, Das KC, Kanagaratnam J, Neve S (2015) Biochar amendment to soils with contrasting organic matter level: effects on N mineralization and biological soil properties. Glob Chang Biol 7:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson TH, Domsch KH (1993) The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) as a specific activity parameter to assess the effects of environmental conditions, such as pH, on the microbial biomass of forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 25:393–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aponte C, García LV, Marañón T (2013) Tree species effects on nutrient cycling and soil biota: a feedback mechanism favouring species coexistence. Forest Ecol Manag 309:36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldock JA, Oades JM, Nelson PN, Skene TM, Golchin A, Clarke P (1997) Assessing the extent of decomposition of natural organic materials using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Aust J Soil Res 35:1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bossio DA, Girvan MS, Verchot L, Bullimore J, Borelli T, Albrecht A, Scow KM, Ball AS, Pretty JN, Osborn AM (2005) Microbial ecology-soil microbial community response to land use change in an agricultural landscape of western Kenya. Microb Ecol 49:50–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carvalhais N, Forkel M, Khomik M, Bellarby J, Jung M, Migliavacca M, Mu MQ, Saatchi S, Santoro M, Martin T, Weber U, Ahrens B, Beer C, Cescatti A, James T, Randerson RM (2014) Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 514:213–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Casida LEJ, Klein DA, Santoro T (1964) Soil dehydrogenase activity. Soil Sci 98:371–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen CR, Xu ZH, Mathers NJ (2004) Soil carbon pools in adjacent natural and plantation forests of subtropical Australia. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen JH, Li SH, Liang CF, Xu QF, Li YC, Qin H, Fuhrmann JJ (2017) Response of microbial community structure and function to short-term biochar amendment in an intensively managed bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantation soil: effect of particle size and addition rate. Sci Total Environ 574:24–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ding XL, Qiao YF, Filley T, Wang HY, Lü XX, Zhang B, Wang JK (2017) Long-term changes in land use impact the accumulation of microbial residues in the particle-size fractions of a Mollisol. Bio Fertil Soils 53:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eivazi F, Tabatabai MA (1988) Glucosidases and galactosidases in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 20:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fang X, Zhang J, Meng MJ, Guo XP, Wu YW, Liu X, Zhao KL, Ding LZ, Shao YF, Fu WJ (2017) Forest-type shift and subsequent intensive management affected soil organic carbon and microbial community in southeastern China. Eur J Forest Res 36:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frankenberger WT, Johanson JB (1983) Factors affecting invertase activity in soils. Plant Soil 74:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1, Agron Monogr 9, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 383–412Google Scholar
  17. Ghani A, Dexter M, Perrott KW (2003) Hot-water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilisation, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biol Biochem 35:1231–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gong W, Yan XY, Wang JY (2012) The effect of chemical fertilizer on soil organic carbon renewal and CO2 emission-a pot experiment with maize. Plant Soil 353:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo JF, Yang ZJ, Lin CF, Liu XF, Chen GS, Yang YS (2016a) Conversion of a natural evergreen broadleaved forest into coniferous plantations in a subtropical area: effects on composition of soil microbial communities and soil respiration. Biol Fertil Soils 52:799–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guo XP, Meng MJ, Zhao JC, Chen HYH (2016b) Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests. Sci Rep 6:29607CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Han LF, Sun K, Jin J, Xing BS (2016) Some concepts of soil organic carbon characteristics and mineral interaction from a review of literature. Soil Biol Biochem 94:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanway JJ, Heidel H (1952) Soil analysis methods as used in Iowa State College Soil Testing Laboratory. Iowa Agric 57:1–31Google Scholar
  23. Hatcher PG, Schnitzer M, Dennis LW, Maciel GE (1981) Aromaticity of humic substances in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:1089–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. He YT, Zhang WJ, Xu MG, Tong XG, Sun FX, Wang JZ, Huang SM, Zhu P, He XH (2015) Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China. Sci Total Environ 532:635–644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hou EQ, Chen CR, Wen DZ, Liu XC (2015) Phosphatase activity in relation to key litter and soil properties in mature subtropical forests in China. Sci Total Environ 516:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jandl R, Lindner M, Vesterda L, Bauwens B, Baritz R, Hagedorn F, Johnson DW, Minkkinen K, Byrne KA (2007) How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration? Geoderma 137:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kashem MA, Ahmed A, Hoque S, Hossain MZ (2015) Effects of land-use change on the properties of top soil of deciduous Sal forest in Bangladesh. J Mt Area Res 1:5–12Google Scholar
  28. Kooch Y, Bayranvand M (2017) Composition of tree species can mediate spatial variability of C and N cycles in mixed beech forests. Forest Ecol Manag 401:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Küstermann B, Munch JC, Hülsbergen KJ (2013) Effects of soil tillage and fertilization on resource efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions in a long-term field experiment in Southern Germany. Eur J Agron 49:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lal R (2008) Sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in global carbon pools. Energy Environ Sci 1:86–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lewis T, Smith TE, Hogg B, Swift S, Verstraten L, Bryant P, Wehr BJ, Tindale N, Menzies NW, Dalal RC (2016) Conversion of sub-tropical native vegetation to introduced conifer forest: impacts on below-ground and above-ground carbon pools. For Ecol Manag 370:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li DD, Fan JJ, Zhang XY, Xu XL, He NP, Wen XF, Sun XM, Blagodatskaya E, Kuzyakov Y (2017c) Hydrolase kinetics to detect temperature-related changes in the rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Eur J Soil Biol 81:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li S, Zhang SR, Pu YL, Lin T, Xu XX, Jia YX, Deng OP, Gong GS (2016) Dynamics of soil labile organic carbon fractions and C-cycle enzyme activities under straw mulch in Chengdu Plain. Soil Tillage Res 155:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li SL, Liang CT, Shangguan ZP (2017b) Effects of apple branch biochar on soil C mineralization and nutrient cycling under two levels of N. Sci Total Environ 607:109–119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Li YC, Li YF, Chang SX, Liang X, Qin H, Chen JH, Xu QF (2017a) Linking soil fungal community structure and function to soil organic carbon chemical composition in intensively managed subtropical bamboo forests. Soil Biol Biochem 107:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li YF, Hu SD, Chen JH, Müller K, Li YC, Fu WJ, Lin ZW, Wang HL (2018) Effects of biochar application in forest ecosystems on soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions: a review. J Soils Sediments 18:546–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li YF, Zhang JJ, Chang SX, Jiang PK, Zhou GM, Fu SL, Yan ER, Wu JS, Lin L (2013) Long-term intensive management effects on soil organic carbon pools and chemical composition in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests in subtropical China. For Ecol Manag 303:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Li YF, Zhang JJ, Chang SX, Jiang PK, Zhou GM, Shen ZM, Wu JS, Lin L, Wang ZS, Shen MC (2014) Converting native shrub forests to Chinese chestnut plantations and subsequent intensive management affected soil C and N pools. For Ecol Manag 312:160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liang Q, Gao RT, Xi BD, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2014) Long-term effects of irrigation using water from the river receiving treated industrial wastewater on soil organic carbon fractions and enzyme activities. Agric Water Manag 135:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu J, Jiang PK, Wang HL, Zhou GM, Wu JS, Yang F, Qian XB (2011) Seasonal soil CO2 efflux dynamics after land use change from a natural forest to moso bamboo plantations in subtropical China. For Ecol Manag 262:1131–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu H, Carvalhais LC, Crawford M, Dang YP, Dennis PG, Schenk PM (2016) Strategic tillage increased the relative abundance of acidobacteria but did not impact on overall soil microbial properties of a 19-year no-till Solonetz. Biol Fertil Soils 52:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu SL, Huang DY, Chen AL, Wei WX, Brookes PC, Li Y, Wu JS (2014) Differential responses of crop yields and soil organic carbon stock to fertilization and rice straw incorporation in three cropping systems in the subtropics. Agric Ecosyst Environ 184:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Luo Y, Durenkamp M, Lin QM, Nobili M, Brookes PC (2011) Soil priming effects and the mineralisation of biochar following its incorporation to soils of different pH. Soil Biol Biochem 43:2304–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Macinnis-Ng C, Schwendenmann L (2015) Litterfall, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a southern hemisphere conifer forest dominated by kauri (Agathis australis) during drought. Plant Ecol 216:247–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mazzon M, Cavani L, Margon A, Sorrenti G, Ciavatta C, Marzadori C (2018) Changes in soil phenol oxidase activities due to long-term application of compost and mineral N in a walnut orchard. Geoderma 316:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morell FJ, Lampurlanés J, Álvaro-Fuentes J, Cantero-Martíneza C (2011) Yield and water use efficiency of barley in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem: long-term effects of tillage and N fertilization. Soil Tillage Res 117:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nazaries L, Tottey W, Robinson L, Khachane A, Al-Soud WA, Sørenson S, Singhae BK (2015) Shifts in the microbial community structure explain the response of soil respiration to land-use change but not to climate warming. Soil Biol Biochem 89:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nannipieri P, Giagnoni L, Renella G, Puglisi E, Ceccanti B, Masciandaro G, Fornasier F, Moscatelli MC, Marinari S (2012) Soil enzymology: classical and molecular approaches. Biol Fertil Soils 48:743–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nannipieri P, Cepeda CT, Dick RP (2018) Soil enzyme activity: a brief history and biochemistry as a basis for appropriate interpretations and meta-analysis. Biol Fertil Soils 54:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paudel S, Sah JP (2015) Effects of different management practices on stand composition and species diversity in subtropical forests in Nepal: implications of community participation in biodiversity conservation. J Sustain For 34:738–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Peichl M, Leava NA, Kiely G (2012) Above- and belowground ecosystem biomass, carbon and nitrogen allocation in recently afforested grassland and adjacent intensively managed grassland. Plant Soil 350:281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peng YY, Thomas SC, Tian DL (2008) Forest management and soil respiration: Implications for carbon sequestration. Environ Rev 16:93–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ramirez KS, Craine JM, Fierer N (2010) Nitrogen fertilization inhibits soil microbial respiration regardless of the form of nitrogen applied. Soil Biol Biochem 42:2336–2338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roscoe R, Buurman P (2003) Tillage effects on soil organic matter in density fractions of a Cerrado Oxisol. Soil Tillage Res 70:107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rumpel C, Kögel-Knabner I (2011) Deep soil organic matter—a key but poorly understood component of terrestrial C cycle. Plant Soil 388:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sainju UM, Singh BP, Whitehead WF (2002) Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil Tillage Res 63:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Salome C, Nunan N, Pouteau V, Lerch TZ, Chenu C (2010) Carbon dynamics in topsoil and in subsoil may be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms. Glob Chang Biol 16:416–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schnurer J, Clarholm M, Rosswall T (1985) Microbial biomass and activity in an agricultural soil with different organic matter contents. Soil Biol Biochem 17:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sheng H, Zhou P, Zhang YZ, Kuzyakov Y, Zhou Q, Ge TD, Wang CH (2015) Loss of labile organic carbon from subsoil due to land-use changes in subtropical China. Soil Biol Biochem 88:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sicardi M, Préchac FG, Frioni L (2004) Soil microbial indicators sensitive to land use conversion from pastures to commercial Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden) plantations in Uruguay. Appl Soil Ecol 27:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sinsabaugh RL, Lauber CL, Weintraub MN, Ahmed B, Allison SD, Crenshaw C, Contosta AR, Cusack D, Frey S, Gallo ME, Gartner TB, Hobbie SE, Holland K, Keeler BL, Powers JS, Stursova M, Takacs-Vesbach C, Waldrop MP, Wallenstein MD, Zak DR, Zeglin LH (2008) Stoichiometry of soil enzyme activity at global scale. Ecol Lett 11:1252–1264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sinsabaugh RL (2010) Phenol oxidase, peroxidase and organic matter dynamics of soil. Soil Biol Biochem 42:391–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smolander A, Kitunen V (2011) Comparison of tree species effects on microbial C and N transformations and dissolved organic matter properties in the organic layer of boreal forests. Appl Soil Ecol 49:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Song ZL, Liu HY, Strömberg CAE, Wang HL, Strong PJ, Yang XM, Wu YT (2018) Contribution of forests to the carbon sink via biologically-mediated silicate weathering: a case study of China. Sci Total Environ 615:1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Srinivasarao CH, Venkateswarlu B, Lai R, Singh AK, Kundu S, Vittal KPR, Patel JJ, Patel MM (2011) Long-term manuring and fertilizer effects on depletion of soil organic carbon stocks under pearl millet-cluster bean-castor rotation in western India. Land Degrad Dev 25:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Straaten OV, Corre MD, Wolf K, Tchienkoua M, Cuellar E, Matthews RB, Veldkamp E (2015) Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:9956–9960CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Tadesse G, Zavaleta E, Shennan C (2014) Effects of land-use changes on woody species distribution and above-ground carbon storage of forest-coffee systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 197:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tischer A, Blagodatskaya E, Hamer U (2014) Extracellular enzyme activities in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador affected by low soil P status and land-use change. Appl Soil Ecol 74:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Treseder KK (2008) Nitrogen additions and microbial biomass: a meta-analysis of ecosystem studies. Ecol Lett 11:1111–1120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Valentini R, Matteucci G, Dolman AJ, Schulze ED, Rebmann C, Moors EJ, Granier A, Gross P, Jensen NO, Pilegaard K, Lindroth A, Grelle A, Bernhofer C, Gruñwald T, Aubinet M, Ceuleman R, Kowalski AS, Vesala T, Rannik Ü, Berbigier P, Loustau D (2000) Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature 404:861–865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DC (1987) An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem 19:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wan XH, Xiao LJ, Vadeboncoeur MA, Johnson CE, Huang ZQ (2018) Response of mineral soil carbon storage to harvest residue retention depends on soil texture: a meta-analysis. For Ecol Manag 408:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang H, Liu SR, Mo JM, Wang JX, Makeschin F, Wolff M (2010) Soil organic carbon stock and chemical composition in four plantations of indigenous tree species in subtropical China. Ecol Res 25:1071–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang QK, Xiao FM, He TX, Wang SL (2013) Responses of labile soil organic carbon and enzyme activity in mineral soils to forest conversion in the subtropics. Ann For Sci 70:579–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang QK, Zhong MC (2016) Composition and mineralization of soil organic carbon pools in four single-tree species forest soils. J For Res 27:1277–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang X, Tang C, Baldock JA, Butterly CR, Gazey C (2016) Long-term effect of lime application on the chemical composition of soil organic carbon in acid soils varying in texture and liming history. Biol Fertil Soils 52:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wardle DA, Ghani A (1995) A critique of the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) as a bioindicator of disturbance and ecosystem development. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1601–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) (2006) A framework for international classification, correlation and communication. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  80. Wu J, Joergensen RG, Pommerening B, Chaussod R, Brookes PC (1990) Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation-extraction-an automated procedure. Soil Biol Biochem 22:1167–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wu JS, Jiang PK, Chang SX, Xu QF, Yang L (2010) Dissolved soil organic carbon and nitrogen were affected by conversion of native forests to plantations in subtropical China. Can J Soil Sci 90:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xu QF, Jiang PK, Xu ZH (2008) Soil microbial functional diversity under intensively managed bamboo plantations in southern China. J Soils Sediments 8:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Xue JF, Pu C, Liu SL, Chen ZD, Chen F, Xiao XP, Lal R, Zhang H-L (2015) Effects of tillage systems on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in a double paddy cropping system in southern China. Soil Tillage Res 153:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yan WB, Mahmood Q, Peng DL, Fu WJ, Chen T, Wang Y, Li S, Chen JR, Liu D (2015) The spatial distribution pattern of heavy metals and risk assessment of moso bamboo forest soil around lead-zinc mine in Southeastern China. Soil Tillage Res 153:120–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yang K, Shi W, Zhu JJ (2013) The impact of secondary forests conversion into larch plantations on soil chemical and microbiological properties. Plant Soil 368:535–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yang KJ, He RY, Yang WQ, Li ZJ, Zhuang LY, Wu FZ, Tan B, Liu Y, Zhang L, Tu LH, Xu ZF (2017a) Temperature response of soil carbon decomposition depends strongly on forest management practice and soil layer on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Sci Rep 7:4777CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang M, Li YF, Li YC, Chang SX, Yue T, Fu WJ, Jiang PK, Zhou GM (2017b) Effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pools in an intensively managed moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) plantation in subtropical China. Commun Soil Sci Plan 48:332–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yang YC, Fujihara M, Li B, Yuan X, Hara K, Da LJ, Tomita M, Zhao Y (2014) Structure and diversity of remnant natural evergreen broad-leaved forests at three sites affected by urbanization in Chongqing metropolis, Southwest China. Landsc Ecol Eng 10:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yang YS, Guo JF, Chen GS, Yin YF, Ren G, Lin CF (2009) Effects of forest conversion on soil labile organic carbon fractions and aggregate stability in subtropical China. Plant Soil 323:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang JJ, Li YF, Chang SX, Jiang PK, Zhou GM, Liu J, Wu JS, Shen ZM (2014) Understory vegetation management affected greenhouse gas emissions and labile organic carbon pools in an intensively managed Chinese chestnut plantation. Plant Soil 376:363–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang JJ, Li YF, Chang SX, Qin H, Fu SL, Jiang PK (2015) Understory management and fertilization affected soil greenhouse gas emissions and labile organic carbon pools in a Chinese chestnut plantation. For Ecol Manag 337:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhang WW, Lu ZT, Yang K, Zhu JJ (2017) Impacts of conversion from secondary forests to larch plantations on the structure and function of microbial communities. Appl Soil Ecol 111:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhang T, Li YF, Chang SX, Jiang PK, Zhou GM, Liu J, Lin L (2013) Converting paddy fields to lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands affected soil nutrient concentrations, labile organic carbon pools, and organic carbon chemical compositions. Plant Soil 367:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling in Forest Ecosystems and Carbon SequestrationZhejiang A & F UniversityLin’anChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for Bamboo Resources and High-efficiency UtilizationZhejiang A & F UniversityLin’anChina
  3. 3.Department of Animal, Plant and Soil SciencesLa Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia
  4. 4.Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and EnvironmentZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations