Simultaneous Embedding of Colored Graphs


A set of colored graphs are compatible, if for every color i, the number of vertices of color i is the same in every graph. A simultaneous embedding of k compatibly colored graphs, each with n vertices, consists of k planar polyline drawings of these graphs such that the vertices of the same color are mapped to a common set of vertex locations. We prove that simultaneous embedding of \(k\in o(\log \log n)\) colored planar graphs, each with n vertices, can always be computed with a sublinear number of bends per edge. Specifically, we show an \(O(\min \{c, n^{1-1/\gamma }\})\) upper bound on the number of bends per edge, where \(\gamma = 2^{\lceil k/2 \rceil }\) and c is the total number of colors. Our bound, which results from a better analysis of a previously known algorithm by Durocher and Mondal (SIAM J Discrete Math 32(4):2703–2719, 2018), improves the bound for k, as well as the bend complexity by a factor of \(\sqrt{2}^{k}\). The algorithm can be generalized to obtain small universal point sets for colored graphs. We prove that \(n\lceil c/b \rceil \) vertex locations, where \(b\ge 1\), suffice to embed any set of compatibly colored n-vertex planar graphs with bend complexity O(b), where c is the number of colors.

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The author thanks the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments, which improved the presentation of the paper.

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Correspondence to Debajyoti Mondal.

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This work is supported in part by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

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Mondal, D. Simultaneous Embedding of Colored Graphs. Graphs and Combinatorics (2021).

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  • Graph drawing
  • Simultaneous embedding
  • Monotonic sequence
  • Bend complexity
  • Thickness