Three-dimensional cartoon facial animation based on art rules

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) cartoon facial animation is one step further than the challenging 3D caricaturing which generates 3D still caricatures only. In this paper, a 3D cartoon facial animation system is developed for a subject given only a single frontal face image of a neutral expression. The system is composed of three steps consisting of 3D cartoon face exaggeration, texture processing, and 3D cartoon facial animation. By following caricaturing rules of artists, instead of mathematical formulations, 3D cartoon face exaggeration is accomplished at both global and local levels. As a result, the final exaggeration is capable of depicting the characteristics of an input face while achieving artistic deformations. In the texture processing step, texture coordinates of the vertices of the cartoon face model are obtained by mapping the parameterized grid of the standard face model to a cartoon face template and aligning the input face to the face template.

Finally, 3D cartoon facial animation is implemented in the MPEG-4 animation framework. In order to avoid time-consuming construction of a face animation table, we propose to utilize the tables of existing models through model mapping. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed system.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

Notes

  1. 1.

    http://www.facegen.com/.

  2. 2.

    http://www.visagetechnologies.com/.

  3. 3.

    http://www.pudn.com/downloads183/sourcecode/graph/detail859951.html.

References

  1. 1.

    Abrantes, G., Pereira, F.: MPEG-4 facial animation technology: survey, implementation, and results. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 9, 290–305 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Akleman, E., Reisch, J.: Modeling expressive 3D caricatures. In: ACM Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH), Los Angeles, California (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bier, E.A., Sloan, K.R.: Two-part texture mappings. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 6, 40–53 (1986)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chiang, P.Y., Liao, W.H., Li, T.Y.: Automatic caricature generation by analyzing facial features. In: Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Jeju, Korea (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Clarke, L., Chen, M., Mora, B.: Automatic generation of 3D caricatures based on artistic deformation styles. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 17(6), 808–821 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cootes, T.F., Taylor, C.J., Cooper, D.H., Graham, J.: Active shape models, their training and application. Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 61, 38–59 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Erol, F., Gudukbay, U.: An interactive facial animation system. In: International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ersotelos, N., Dong, F.: Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey. Vis. Comput. 24(1), 13–30 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Fu, G., Chen, Y., Liu, J., Zhou, J., Li, P.: Interactive expressive 3D caricatures design. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Hannover, Germany, pp. 965–968 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Fujiwara, T., Koshimizu, H., Fujimura, K., Fujita, G., Noguchi, Y., Ishikawa, N.: A method for 3D face modeling and caricatured figure generation. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 137–140 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Gao, W., Chen, Y., Wang, R., Shan, S., Jiang, D.: Learning and synthesizing MPEG-4 compatible 3-d face animation from video sequence. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13(11), 1119–1128 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Jin, X., Bao, H., Peng, Q.: A survey of computer animation. J. Softw. 8, 241–251 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lan, J., Chen, Y., Xu, Y.: A facial animation synthesis approach based on MPEG-4 and PCA. Comput. Eng. Appl. 40, 60–64 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Li, P., Chen, Y., Liu, J., Fu, G.: 3D caricature generation by manifold learning. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Hannover, Germany, pp. 941–944 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Liang, L., Chen, H., Xu, Y.Q., Shum, H.Y.: Example-based caricature generation with exaggeration. In: Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications, Beijing, China, pp. 386–393 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Liu, J., Chen, Y., Miao, C., Xie, J., Ling, C.X., Gao, X., Gao, W.: Semi-supervised learning in reconstructed manifold space for 3D caricature generation. Comput. Graph. Forum 1, 1–11 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Luan, Q., Xu, Y.: Facial pixel drawing generation algorithm. J. Comput.-Aided Des. Comput. Graph. 21, 1733–1739 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mo, Z., Lewis, J., Neumann, U.: Improved automatic caricature by feature normalization and exaggeration. In: International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Noh, J.Y., Neumann, U.: A survey of facial modelling and animation techniques. Tech. Rep. TR1998-99-705, Integrated Media Systems Center, Univ. of Southern California (1998)

  20. 20.

    Noh, Y., Fidaleo, D., Neumann, U.: Animated deformations with radial basis functions. In: The ACM Virtual Symposium on Reality and Software Technology (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Obaid, M., Mukundan, R., Billinghurst, M., Pelachaud, C.: Expressive MPEG-4 facial animation using quadratic deformation models. In: The Seventh International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization (CGIV) (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Redman, L.: How to Draw Caricatures. McGraw-Hill, New York (1984)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Sederberg, T.W., Parry, S.R.: Free-form deformation of solid geometric models. In: ACM Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH), pp. 151–160 (1986)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Song, M., Dong, Z., Theobalt, C., Wang, H., Liu, Z., Seidel, H.P.: A generic framework for efficient 2-d and 3-d facial expression analogy. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 9(7), 1384–1395 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Sun, J., Jia, J., Tang, C.K., Shum, H.Y.: Poisson matting. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 315–321 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Tong, J., Guan, H.: Realistic rapid 3D face modeling for film/TV animation. J. Comput. Appl. 27, 1013–1016 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Xie, J., Chen, Y., Liu, J., Miao, C., Gao, X.: Interactive 3D caricature generation based on double sampling. In: ACM International Conference on Multimedia, Vancouver, British, Columbia, Canada, pp. 745–748 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Zhang, M., Liu, S., Wang, J., Shen, H., Pan, Z.: The 3D caricature face modeling based on aesthetic formulae. In: International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry, COEX, Seoul Korea (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Zhou, R., Zhou, J., Chen, Y., Liu, J., Li, L.S.: Caricature generation based on facial feature analysis. J. Comput.-Aided Des. Comput. Graph. 118, 1362–1366 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Nos. 60871086, 60970076, 61173124, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province China No. BK2008159, and ARC (Australian Research Council) grants.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jiajun Wang.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

(AVI 10.6 MB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Liu, S., Wang, J., Zhang, M. et al. Three-dimensional cartoon facial animation based on art rules. Vis Comput 29, 1135–1149 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00371-012-0756-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cartoon facial animation
  • Caricature
  • Art rules
  • Model exaggeration
  • Non-photorealistic rendering