The aeroacoustic behavior of a cylindrical surface with a small cavity

Abstract

The aeroacoustic effects of the flow around a cylinder with a small rectangular cavity in its surface are investigated in an acoustic wind tunnel. In different positions, the overflown cavity produces loud tonal whistling noise. In large part, the noise can be explained with the Rossiter model. At a certain position of the cavity, a different aeroacoustic phenomenon occurs, which is in focus of this investigation. Tonal frequencies appear in a narrow band region, which do not scale with different cavities. A sudden onset and a sudden stop of the acoustic radiation are accompanied with a transition of the circulating flow. A strong hysteresis is observable. The separating boundary layer plays a major role in the characterization of the flow in the vicinity of the cavity. Acoustical and various flow measurements at velocities up to 47 m/s as well as a CFD simulation are presented. Consistent results reveal Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities as the reason for the aeroacoustic phenomenon.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Notes

  1. 1.

    Additional PIV measurements on a cylinder without a cavity show that the global flow patterns do not significantly change compared to the measurements on the cylinder with the cavity (positioned at this particular angle).

  2. 2.

    It is worth mentioning that in the area of hysteresis (between 36 and 43 m/s), it is also possible to let the cylinder enter the drag crisis condition by irradiating it with a sinusoidal tone. It is produced with a loudspeaker positioned in the far field under the cylinder and outside the flow. The possibility of disturbing a boundary layer acoustically has already been mentioned by Meyer and Neumann (1979). At a local SPL of approximately 95 dB at the cylinder (measured at the surface with no flow) and at frequencies between 4.6 and 7.5 kHz, the boundary layer is effectively disturbed, which makes the cylinder enter the drag crisis.

References

  1. Achenbach E (1974) The effects of surface roughness and tunnel blockage on the flow past spheres. J Fluid Mech 65:113–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Arunajatesan S, Kannepalli C, Sinha N, Sheehan M, Alvi F, Shumway G, Ukeiley L (2009) Suppression of cavity loads using leading-edge blowing. AIAA J 47(5):1132–1144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ashcroft G, Zhang Z (2005) Vortical structures over rectangular cavities at low speed. Phys Fluids 17(015104):8

    Google Scholar 

  4. Behara S, Mittal S (2011) Transition of the boundary layer on a circular cylinder in the presence of a trip. J Fluid Struct 27:702–715

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bloor MS (1964) The transition to turbulence in the wake of a circular cylinder. J Fluid Mech 19:290–304

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  6. Cattafesta LN III, Song Q, Williams DR, Rowley CW, Alvi FS (2008) Active control of flow-induced cavity oscillations. Prog Aerosp Sci 44:479–502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Cattafesta L, Garg S, Choudhari M, Li F (1997) Active control of flow-induced cavity resonance. In: AIAA Paper 1997–1804

  8. Cattafesta L, Williams D, Rowley C, Alvi F (2003) Review of active control of flow-induced cavity resonance. In: AIAA Paper 2003–3567, p 20

  9. Colonius T (2001) An overview of simulation, modeling, and active control of flow/acoustic resonance in open cavities. In: AIAA Paper 2001–0076, p 12

  10. Elder SA, Farabee TM, Demetz FC (1982) Mechanisms of flow-excited cavity tones at low mach number. J Acoust Soc Am 72:532–549

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Heinzelmann BS, Gollnick B, Thamsen PU, Petsche M, Christiansen JB (2008) Investigations into boundary layer fences in the hub area of wind turbine blades. In: Proceedings of the European wind energy conference and exhibition, 31 March–3 April 2008, Brussels, Belgium, p 10, ISBN: 9781615671151

  12. Heller HH, Holmes DG, Covert EE (1971) Flow-induced pressure oscillations in shallow cavities. J Sound Vib 18:545–553

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Heller H, Delfs J (1996) Letter to the editor: cavity pressure oscillations: the generating mechanism visualized. J Sound Vib 196(2):248–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Homeyer T, Gülker G, Haut C, Kirrkamm N, Mellert V, Schultz-von Glahn M, Peinke J (2012) Investigations of cavity noise generation on a cylinder. In: Oberlack M, Peinke J, Talamelli A, Castillo L, Hölling M (eds) Progress in turbulence and wind energy IV—proceedings of the iTi conference in turbulence 2010, Springer proceedings in physics 141, Springer, Berlin, pp 119–122, ISBN 978-3-642-28967-5

  15. Homeyer T, Kirrkamm N, Haut C, Schultz-von Glahn M, Kampers G, Peinke J, Mellert V, Gülker G (2011) Untersuchungen geräuscherzeugender Kavitäten auf einem Zylinder. In: Thess A, Resagk C, Ruck B, Leder A, Dopheide D (eds) Lasermethoden in der Strömungsmesstechnik - 19. Fachtagung 2011 Ilmenau, German Association for Laser Anemometry e.V. Karlsruhe, pp 20.1-20.7, ISBN 978-3-9805613-7-2

  16. Kegerise MA (1999) An experimental investigation of flow-induced cavity oscillations. Mechanical and aerospace engineering, dissertations, paper 31, http://surface.syr.edu/mae_etd/31 (date last viewed 30/10/12), Syracuse University Library, Syracuse, NY, p 337

  17. Kirrkamm N, Stoevesandt B, Gollnick B, Peinke J (2010) Simulation of a large wind turbine rotor blade with open source code OpenFOAM. In: Proceedings of the European wind energy conference and exhibition, 20–23 April 2010, Warsaw, Poland, p 7, ISBN: 9781617823107

  18. Li W, Nonomura T, Fujii K (2013) Mechanism of controlling supersonic cavity oscillations using upstream mass injection. Phys Fluids 25(086101):15

    Google Scholar 

  19. Longhouse RE (1977) Vortex shedding noise of low tip speed, axial flow fans. J Sound Vib 53:25–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lusk T, Cattafesta L, Ukeiley L (2012) Leading edge slot blowing on an open cavity in supersonic flow. Exp Fluids 53(1):187–199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Meyer E, Neumann EG (1979) Physikalische und technische Akustik (“Physical and Applied Acoustics”), 3rd ed., Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Braunschweig, pp 340–342, ISBN 3-528-28255-X

  22. Mi J, Xu M, Antonia R, Wang RE (2011) Thermal characteristics of the wake shear layers from a slightly heated circular cylinder. Exp Fluids 50:429–441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Murray N, Sällström E, Ukeiley L (2009) Properties of subsonic open cavity flow fields. Phys Fluids 21(095103):16

    Google Scholar 

  24. Pfeil H, Orth J (1990) Boundary-layer transition on a cylinder with and without separation bubbles. Exp Fluids 10:23–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. PivTec GmbH (2011) Pivview2c 3.1.1, http://www.pivtec.com/ (date last viewed 05/04/11)

  26. Plumblee HE, Gibson JS, Lassiter LW (1962) A theoretical and experimental investigation of the acoustic response of cavities in an aerodynamic flow. In: Flight dynamics laboratory, aeronautical systems division, air force systems command, Wright-Patterson air force base, Ohio, WADD technical report 61–75, p 162

  27. Prasad A, Williamson CH (1997) The instability of the shear layer separating from a bluff body. J Fluid Mech 333:375–402

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  28. Rockwell D, Naudascher E (1979) Self-sustained oscillations of impinging free shear layers. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 11:67–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Rossiter JE (1964) Wind-tunnel experiments on the flow over rectangular cavities at subsonic and transonic speeds. Ministry of Aviation, Aeronautical Research Council, London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, Reports and Memoranda No. 3438, p 32

  30. Rowley CW, Williams DR (2006) Dynamics and control of high-Reynolds-number flow over open cavities. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 38:251–276

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  31. Schewe G (1983) On the force fluctuations acting on a circular cylinder in crossflow from subcritical up to transcritical reynolds numbers. J Fluid Mech 133:265–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Schlichting H, Gersten K (2000) Boundary-layer theory, 8th ed, Springer, Berlin, p 826, ISBN 3-540-66270-7

  33. Singh SP, Mittal S (2005) Flow past a cylinder: shear layer instability and drag crisis. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 47:75–98

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  34. Tam CKW (1976) The acoustic modes of a two-dimensional rectangular cavity. J Sound Vib 49:353–364

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  35. Tam CKW, Block PJW (1978) On the tones and pressure oscillations induced by flow over rectangular cavities. J Fluid Mech 89:373–399

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  36. Ukeiley L, Murray N (2005) Velocity and surface pressure measurements in an open cavity. Exp Fluids 38(5):656–671

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Ukeiley L, Sheehan M, Coiffet F, Alvi F, Arunajatesan S, Jansen B (2008) Control of pressure loads in geometrically complex cavities. J Aircr 44(3):1014–1024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Woo CH, Kim JS, Lee KH (2006) Analysis of two dimensional and three dimensional supersonic turbulence flow around tandem cavities. J Mech Sci Technol 20(8):1256–1265

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the Audi AG for their financial support. Furthermore, Christopher Haut and Gerrit Kampers are thanked for their experimental assistance.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tim Homeyer.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (mpg 1951 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Homeyer, T., Kirrkamm, N., Peinke, J. et al. The aeroacoustic behavior of a cylindrical surface with a small cavity. Exp Fluids 55, 1714 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-014-1714-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Particle Image Velocimetry
  • Shear Layer
  • Sound Pressure Level
  • Strouhal Number
  • Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement