The impact of nephrostomy drainage prior to mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with ESBL-positive Escherichia coli

Abstract

Objective

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is one of the most frightening multidrug-resistant bacteria that usually causes sepsis. Herein we explored the benefits of nephrostomy drainage prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on infection outcomes in patients with ESBL-EC.

Patients and methods

Between June 2016 and April 2019, 43 consecutive patients with ESBL-EC who received nephrostomy drainage for > 24 h prior to PCNL were retrospectively evaluated as group 1. 86 patients were randomly selected from patients with ESBL-EC who received concurrent percutaneous access during PCNL as group 2. The postoperative infection complications were compared.

Results

Although the total infection complications were not statistically different (11.6% vs. 25.6%, p = 0.066), the severity seemed to be worse among group 2 subjects. Severe infections, including urosepsis (4.7% vs.13.9%) and septic shock (2.3% vs 4.6%), were observed at twice or greater rates in group 2. Blood transfusions were also more frequent (2.3% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative drainage was an independent risk factor for postoperative infection events (OR 2.31 CI 1.14–3.48, p = 0.017). Subgroup analyses indicated that preoperative drainage may largely reduce the incidence of urosepsis in patients with hydronephrosis or without receiving preoperative carbapenem therapy.

Conclusion

Because of the high rate of severe infection after PCNL in patients with ESBL‑positive E. coli, preoperative nephrostomy drainage for > 24 h is an effective measure to reduce the risk of severe infection complications, especially in patients with hydronephrosis or those without preoperative carbapenem therapy.

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Funding

This study was supported in part by research grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.81600542).

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Authors

Contributions

GZ: project development and manuscript editing. ZZ and WW: data collecting and manuscript writing. TZ, XW: data collecting. YL: reviewed the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yongda Liu or Guohua Zeng.

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The author(s) declare no conflict of interest.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Cite this article

Zhao, Z., Wu, W., Zeng, T. et al. The impact of nephrostomy drainage prior to mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with ESBL-positive Escherichia coli. World J Urol 39, 239–246 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03155-6

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Keywords

  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli
  • Urosepsis
  • Percutaneous
  • Nephrolithotomy
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy