To describe the operative technique and report outcomes from the largest series of patients who underwent single-stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (BMGU) for isolated meatal stenoses and fossa navicularis strictures.
Patients and methods
First, we evaluated patients who underwent single-stage BMGU for distal urethral strictures (meatus and fossa navicularis) between 2009 and 2016 at our department. Clinical and surgical characteristics were prospectively collected in an institutional database. Recurrence was defined as symptomatic need of any instrumentation during follow-up, was retrospectively assessed by patient interview, and recurrence-free survival was plotted using Kaplan–Meier curves. Second, a systematic literature review was performed through Medline to summarize the available evidence on distal urethroplasty using flaps or grafts.
Of 32 patients, 16 (50%) presented with a hypospadias-associated stricture, followed by seven (22%), five (16%), and four (13%) patients with iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital strictures, respectively. At a median follow-up of 42 months (IQR 23–65), single-stage dorsal inlay BMGU was successful in 22 patients (69%), and estimated recurrence-free survival rates were 79% and 74% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Overall, 62 patients from five studies in the literature review underwent BMGU for isolated distal strictures and success rates ranged from 56 to 100%.
Recurrent meatal stenoses and fossa navicularis strictures represent some of the most complex uro-reconstructive challenges. Inlay BMGU proves to be a valid and efficient last-resort single-stage technique. However, higher recurrence risk must be considered and staged urethroplasty should be discussed individually. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to prove the superiority of flaps, grafts or staged approaches over each other in this context.
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Almut Gödde, Jule Lamp, Carla Loewe, and Justus Stahlberg assisted with data collection. Simon Benz assisted with photo editing.
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.
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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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Luis A. Kluth, Clemens M. Rosenbaum: Member of the Trauma and Reconstructive Urology Working Party of the EAU (European Association of Urology) YAU (Young Academic Urologists).
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Zumstein, V., Dahlem, R., Maurer, V. et al. Single-stage buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for meatal stenoses and fossa navicularis strictures: a monocentric outcome analysis and literature review on alternative treatment options. World J Urol 38, 2609–2620 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-03035-8
- Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus
- Mouth mucosa
- Systematic review