Should we rely on Doppler ultrasound for evaluation of testicular solid lesions?
Colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is the main radiologic tool to evaluate scrotal masses and intratesticular-vascularised solid lesions are mostly considered malign lesions. Objective of this trial is determine ratio of benign lesions in patients with hypervascularised solid intratesticular lesions.
Material and method
Patients who underwent radical orchiectomy due to hypervascularised intratesticular solid lesions detected in CDUS are evaluated retrospectively. Those with previous testicular cancer history and inguinal/scrotal surgeries were excluded from the study. All patients are evaluated for age, preoperative testicular atrophy, multicentricity, echotexture and size of solid lesions, preoperative tumor markers (AFP, bHCG and LDH), and postoperative pathology results. Two tailed p value test was used to evaluate numeric parameters and Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate non-numeric parameters.
A total of 117 patients with a mean age of 35.9 (5–86) were included to the study. Mean size of solid lesions was 4.39 cm. Seven patients had subcentimeter (subcm) lesions. 101 patients had hypoechoic, ten patients had isoechoic and six patients hyperechoic solid lesions. Preoperatively 60 patients (51.2%) had at least one tumor marker elevated. Postoperative pathology examination resulted to; 21 patients (17.9%) had benign lesions. Elevation of tumor markers, palpability, hypoechoic texture and larger size of the solid lesion were found to be parameters that predict malignancy.
Benign incidence of vascular testicular solid lesions detected with scrotal ultrasound with colour Doppler is greater than expected. In patients with smaller, non-palpable lesions without elevated tumor markers, treatment options other than radical orchiectomy such as testicular sparing surgery should be considered.
KeywordsColour Doppler ultrasound Small testicular lesions Scrotal masses Testicular sparing surgery Testicular biopsy Testicular cancer
BE Manuscript writing, Data Collection. MÖY Data collection, Data analysis, Project development. SB Project development, Manuscript writing and editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and animal participants
No research involving human participants or animals was performed.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.