World Journal of Urology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 667–671 | Cite as

Fluoroscopy-free ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: a single-center experience

  • Akbar Nouralizadeh
  • Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas
  • Hamid Pakmanesh
  • Abbas Basiri
  • Mohammad Hadi Radfar
  • Mohammad Hossein Soltani
  • Mahmoodreza Nasiri
  • Esmaeil Rezghi Maleki
  • Emal Lesha
  • Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad
  • Behzad Narouie
Original Article



To present the safety and efficacy of fluoroscopy-free ultrasound-guided PCNL for the treatment of renal calculi in pediatric patients of all ages.


30 children with mean age of 5 years (6 months–12 years) underwent totally ultrasound-guided PCNL from March 2013 to August 2016. The pyelocalyceal system was punctured in prone position using only ultrasonography guidance, and the tract was dilated using a single shot dilation technique. No fluoroscopy was used during any of the stages of renal access. The procedure was performed using adult-sized instruments.


The mean stone size was 27.1 ± 8.7 mm. Mean access time was 4.3 ± 2 min. Mean nephroscopic time was 34.6 ± 15.2 min. Mean hospital stay of patients was 3 days (range 2–5). 21 patients were stone-free after the procedure (70% success rate). Only four patients out of 30 experienced postoperative complications.


The results of this study showed that fluoroscopic-free ultrasound-guided PCNL in pediatric patients of all ages is safe, highly efficient, and minimizes potential radiation exposure risks associated with the procedure.


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy Pediatric Ultrasonography-guided Flouroscopy-free 



The authors would like to acknowledge our colleagues at the Labbafinejad Hospital Operating Room, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, for their valuable suggestions on this manuscript.

Author contributions

AN Project development, Data collection and management. FS Project development, Data collection and management. HP Data analysis, Manuscript writing and editing. AB Project development. MHR Project development. MHS Project development, Data collection and management. MN Data collection and management. ERM Data collection and management. EL Data analysis, Manuscript writing and editing. MGR Data analysis, Manuscript writing and editing. BN Project development, Data analysis, Manuscript writing and editing.


No financial support (Grants and funds) received for this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Research involving human participants

All procedures performed in the study that involved human participants were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Urology and Nephrology Research Center (UNRC) at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, and were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akbar Nouralizadeh
    • 1
  • Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas
    • 1
  • Hamid Pakmanesh
    • 2
  • Abbas Basiri
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hadi Radfar
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Soltani
    • 1
  • Mahmoodreza Nasiri
    • 1
    • 3
  • Esmaeil Rezghi Maleki
    • 1
  • Emal Lesha
    • 4
  • Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad
    • 5
  • Behzad Narouie
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of UrologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Department of UrologyGolestan University of Medical SciencesGorganIran
  4. 4.Tufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  5. 5.Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  6. 6.Department of UrologyZahedan University of Medical SciencesZahedanIran

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