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Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and Induced Asynaptic Mutation: A Meiotic Study


We have synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and studied the cytogenotoxic effect of the synthesized NPs on plants. The synthesized NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and PSA. The XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles. The SEM analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparticles range from 60 to 300 nm. The effect of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles on Vicia faba (2n = 12) was studied. The seeds of Vicia faba were treated with different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/L, or 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 mg/100 mL) of TiO2 nanoparticles. Seeds treated with the higher concentrations of TiO2 showed a change in the meiotic activity which causes a significant increase of chromosomal abnormalities in the reproductive parts of the plant. Different types of meiotic abnormalities, such as stickiness and the separation of univalent and bivalent chromosomes at metaphase were recorded. It was found that the number of univalent chromosomes ranged from 2 to 12 in 95% of pollen mother cells in diakinesis/metaphase I, and that there was a significant decrease in the number of chiasmata in seeds which were treated with the synthesized nanoparticles as compared to the control.

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Generation of plants




Pollen mother cells

TiO2 :

Titanium dioxide

V. faba :

Vicia faba


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The authors are grateful to the Head of Department, School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, for providing support. We are also grateful to the central instrumentation facility and the physics department of Jiwaji University for providing all the required instruments.

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KSK designed the plan of work, performed the experiments, prepared the manuscript, and the characterization of TiO2 NPs. SP co-wrote the manuscript together with KSK, supervised the study and provided valuable suggestions to improve the study.

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Correspondence to Kalyan Singh Kushwah.

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The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and Animal Rights

The authors declare that the current work was done on plants and there was no involvement of animals. We declare that this work has no harmful effects on any animals or human beings.

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Kushwah, K.S., Patel, S. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and Induced Asynaptic Mutation: A Meiotic Study. J Plant Growth Regul 39, 1107–1118 (2020).

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  • Asynaptic mutant
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Faba bean
  • Meiosis
  • Vicia faba
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Univalent/bivalent chromosomes