Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 813–825 | Cite as

Root Development Enhanced by Using Indole-3-butyric Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Associated Biochemical Changes of In Vitro Azalea Microshoots

  • Mohamed S. Elmongy
  • Yan Cao
  • Hong Zhou
  • Yiping Xia


Based on the importance of producing in vitro adventitious roots, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 2 mg L−1 on the formation of adventitious roots of azalea and their impact on biochemical changes and endogenous hormones. The rooting percentage, root number, and root length were increased in the microshoots of both studied cultivars (‘Mingchao’ and ‘Zihudie’) when the growth medium was supplemented with IBA. Additionally, peroxidase, indole acetic acid oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and soluble protein contents were improved in both cultivars by auxin treatments especially during the first 7 days of the rooting period. However, application of IBA and NAA increased catalase and polyphenol oxidase in both cultivars during the first 14 and 28 days of culture. The increase in endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA) levels was accompanied by low activity of IAAO during most periods of root induction of microshoots in all treatments. Endogenous gibberellic acid levels were increased after 7 days of culture and then increased again after 28 days of culture. In contrast, the levels of endogenous zeatin riboside and isopentenyl adenosine were decreased with auxin treatments in the first period of the rooting process and then increased after 21 and 28 days of culture. The present study demonstrated that IBA at a concentration of 2 mg L−1 has a strong effect on azalea rooting. Moreover, the efficiency of IBA and NAA effects on biochemical changes during adventitious root induction was investigated, which may provide new horizons of in vitro rooting production and provide valuable information for the micropropagation of Rhododendron plants.


Azalea NAA IBA Adventitious root Rhododendron 



This work was supported by the Science and Technology Major Project of Zhejiang Province, China (projects 2016C02056-12).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed S. Elmongy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yan Cao
    • 1
  • Hong Zhou
    • 1
  • Yiping Xia
    • 1
  1. 1.Physiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory of Ornamental Plants, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and BiotechnologyZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Vegetable and Floriculture, Faculty of AgricultureMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

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