Advertisement

Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 813–825 | Cite as

Root Development Enhanced by Using Indole-3-butyric Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Associated Biochemical Changes of In Vitro Azalea Microshoots

  • Mohamed S. Elmongy
  • Yan Cao
  • Hong Zhou
  • Yiping Xia
Article

Abstract

Based on the importance of producing in vitro adventitious roots, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 2 mg L−1 on the formation of adventitious roots of azalea and their impact on biochemical changes and endogenous hormones. The rooting percentage, root number, and root length were increased in the microshoots of both studied cultivars (‘Mingchao’ and ‘Zihudie’) when the growth medium was supplemented with IBA. Additionally, peroxidase, indole acetic acid oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and soluble protein contents were improved in both cultivars by auxin treatments especially during the first 7 days of the rooting period. However, application of IBA and NAA increased catalase and polyphenol oxidase in both cultivars during the first 14 and 28 days of culture. The increase in endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA) levels was accompanied by low activity of IAAO during most periods of root induction of microshoots in all treatments. Endogenous gibberellic acid levels were increased after 7 days of culture and then increased again after 28 days of culture. In contrast, the levels of endogenous zeatin riboside and isopentenyl adenosine were decreased with auxin treatments in the first period of the rooting process and then increased after 21 and 28 days of culture. The present study demonstrated that IBA at a concentration of 2 mg L−1 has a strong effect on azalea rooting. Moreover, the efficiency of IBA and NAA effects on biochemical changes during adventitious root induction was investigated, which may provide new horizons of in vitro rooting production and provide valuable information for the micropropagation of Rhododendron plants.

Keywords

Azalea NAA IBA Adventitious root Rhododendron 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Science and Technology Major Project of Zhejiang Province, China (projects 2016C02056-12).

References

  1. Aina O, Quesenberry K, Gallo M (2015) Culture vessel and auxin treatments affect in vitro rooting and ex vitro survival of six Arachis paraguariensis genotypes. Sci Hortic 183:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson WC (1984) A revised tissue culture medium for shoot multiplication of rhododendron. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:343–347Google Scholar
  3. Benson EE (2000) Do free radicals have a role in plant tissue culture recalcitrance? In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 36:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaˇzková A, Sotta B, Tranvan H, Maldiney R, Bonnet M, Eihorn J, Kerhoas L, Miginiac E (1997) Auxin metabolism and rooting in young and mature clonesof Sequoia sempervirens. Physiol Plant 99:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brownleader M, Hopkins J, Mobasheri A, Dey P, Jackson P, Trevan M (2000) Role of extensin peroxidase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling growth. Planta 210:668–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carvalho LC, Vilela BJ, Vidigal P, Mullineaux PM, Amâncio S (2006) Activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is an early response of micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. explants transferred to ex vitro. Int J Plant Sci 16:7759–7770Google Scholar
  8. Chao IL, Cho C-L, Chen L-M, Liu Z-H (2001) Effect of indole-3-butyric acid on the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and lignin contents in soybean hypocotyl during adventitious root formation. J Plant Physiol 158:1257–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheniany M, Ebrahimzadeh H, Masoudi-nejad A, Vahdati K, Leslie C (2010) Effect of endogenous phenols and some antioxidant enzyme activities on rooting of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.). Afr J Plant Sci 4:479–487Google Scholar
  10. Chu EP, Tavares AR, Kanashiro S, Giampaoli P, Yokota ES (2010) Effects of auxins on soluble carbohydrates, starch and soluble protein content in Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae) cultured in vitro. Sci Hortic 125:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collet G (1985) Enracinement amélioré lors de la production in vitro de rosiers. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 17:259–263Google Scholar
  12. Da Costa Mello S, Angelotti-Mendonça J, Riboldi LB, Dall’Orto LTC, Suguino E (2016) Impact of indole-3-butyric acid on adventitious root development from cuttings of tea. HortTechnology 26:599–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Da Costa CT, De Almeida MR, Ruedell CM, Schwambach J, Maraschin FDS, Fett-Neto AG (2013) When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings. Front Plant Sci 4:133CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Dabin P, Bouharmont J (1982) Application of in vitro cultures in azalea (Rhododendron simsii planch) (1). In Vitro Cult XXI IHC 131:89–94Google Scholar
  15. Dash GK, Senapati SK, Rout GR (2011) Effect of auxins on adventitious root development from nodal cuttings of Saraca asoka (Roxb.) de Wilde and associated biochemical changes. J Hortic For 3:320–326Google Scholar
  16. Eeckhaut T, Janssens K, De Keyser E, De Riek J (2010) Micropropagation of Rhododendron. In: Jain SM, Ochatt SJ (eds) Protocols for in vitro propagation of ornamentals plants, methods in molecular biology. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, pp 141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Feng D, Huang X, Liu Y, Willison JM (2016) Growth and changes of endogenous hormones of mulberry roots in a simulated rocky desertification area. Environ Sci Pollut R 23:11171–11180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fu Z, Xu P, He S, da Silva JAT, Tanaka M (2011) Dynamic changes in enzyme activities and phenolic content during in vitro rooting of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) plantlets. Maejo Int J Sci Technol 5:252–265Google Scholar
  19. Gaspar T, Kevers C, Hausman J, Berthon J, Ripetti V (1992) Practical uses of peroxidase activity as a predictive marker of rooting performance of micropropagated shoots. Agronomie 12:757–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gaspar T, Kevers C, Penel C, Greppin H, Reid DM, Thorpe TA (1996) Plant hormones and plant growth regulators in plant tissue culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 2:3277–3289Google Scholar
  21. González A, Tamés RS, Rodríguez R (1991) Ethylene in relation to protein, peroxidase and polyphenol xidase activities during rooting in hazelnut cotyledons. Physiol Plant 83:611–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Góth L (1991) A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clin Chim Acta 196:143–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Guifeng L, Chuanping Y, Guanzheng Q, Xiangling Y (2001) Dynamic changes of four endogenous hormones in the larch hybrid during cuttings rooting. J NE Forestry Uni 6:000Google Scholar
  24. GÜNEŞ T (2000) Peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activities during rooting in cuttings of three poplar species. Turk J Bot 24:97–102Google Scholar
  25. Guo X, Fu X, Zang D, Ma Y (2009) Effect of auxin treatments, cuttings’ collection date and initial characteristics on Paeonia ‘Yang Fei Chu Yu’cutting propagation. Sci Hortic 119:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta SD, Datta S (2003) Antioxidant enzyme activities during in vitro morphogenesis of gladiolus and the effect of application of antioxidants on plant regeneration. Biol Plant 47:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haissig BE (1986) Metabolic processes in adventitious rooting of cuttings. In: Jackson MB (ed) New root formation in plants and cuttings. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 141–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hartmann DE, Kester FT, Davies Jr, Geneve RL (2011) Plant propagation principles and practices, 8th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  29. Hatzilazarou SP, Syros TD, Yupsanis TA, Bosabalidis AM, Economou AS (2006) Peroxidases, lignin and anatomy during in vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots. J Plant Physiol 163:827–836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hisano H, Matsuura T, Mori IC, Yamane M, Sato K (2016) Endogenous hormone levels affect the regeneration ability of callus derived from different organs in barley. Plant Physiol Biochem 99:66–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang Y, Ji K-s, Zhai J-r (2007) Relationship between rooting ability and endogenous phytohormone changes in successive continuous generation cuttings of Buxus sinica var. parvifolia, an endangered woody species in China. For Stud China 9:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ilczuk A, Jacygrad E (2016) The effect of IBA on anatomical changes and antioxidant enzyme activity during the in vitro rooting of smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop.). Sci Hortic 210:268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khan S, Bi TB (2012) Direct shoot regeneration system for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Dhakki as a means of micropropagation. Pak J Bot 44:1965–1671Google Scholar
  34. Kotis M, Yupsanis T, Syros T, Economou A (2009) Peroxidase, acid phosphatase, RNase and DNase activity and isoform patterns during in vitro rooting of Petunia × hybrida microshoots. Biol Plant 53:530–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee TT, Starratt AN, Jevnikar JJ (1982) Regulation of enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid by phenols: structure-activity relationships. Phytochemistry 21:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li S, Xue L, Xu S, Feng H, An L (2007) Hydrogen peroxide involvement in formation and development of adventitious roots in cucumber. Plant Growth Regul 52:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu Z-H, Hsiao I-C, Pan Y-W (1996) Effect of naphthalene acetic acid on endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, peroxidase and auxin oxidase in hypocotyl cuttings of soybean during root formation. Bot Bull Acad Sin 37:247–253Google Scholar
  38. Liu T, Hu Y, Li X (2008) Comparison of dynamic changes in endogenous hormones and sugars between abnormal and normal Castanea mollissima. Prog Nat Sci 18:685–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ludwig-Müller J (2000) Indole-3-butyric acid in plant growth and development. Plant Growth Regul 32:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Macedo E, Vieira C, Carrizo D, Porfirio S, Hegewald H, Arnholdt-Schmitt B, Calado M, Peixe A (2013) Adventitious root formation in olive (Olea europaea L.) microshoots: anatomical evaluation and associated biochemical changes in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 88:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mendes AF, Cidade L, Otoni W, Soares-Filho W, Costa MG (2011) Role of auxins, polyamines and ethylene in root formation and growth in sweet orange. Biol Plant 55:375–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mertens M, Werbrouck S, Samyn G, da Silva H, Debergh P (1996) Botelho dos Santos Moreira. In vitro regeneration of evergreen azalea from leaves. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 45:231–236.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00043635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Metaxas DJ, Syros TD, Yupsanis T, Economou AS (2004) Peroxidases during adventitious rooting in cuttings of Arbutus unedo and Taxus baccata as affected by plant genotype and growth regulator treatment. Plant Growth Regul 44:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mishra BS, Singh M, Aggrawal P, Laxmi A (2009) Glucose and auxin signaling interaction in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings root growth and development. PLoS ONE 4:e4502CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Molassiotis A, Dimassi K, Diamantidis G, Therios I (2004) Changes in peroxidases and catalase activity during in vitro rooting. Biol Plant 48:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nag S, Saha K, Choudhuri M (2001) Role of auxin and polyamines in adventitious root formation in relation to changes in compounds involved in rooting. J Plant Growth Regul 20:182–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Naija S, Elloumi N, Jbir N, Ammar S, Kevers C (2008) Anatomical and biochemical changes during adventitious rooting of apple rootstocks MM 106 cultured in vitro. C R Biol 331:518–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Neves C, Sá MC, Amaˆncio S (1998) Histochemical detection of H2O2 by tissue printing as a precocious marker of rhizogenesis in grapevine. Plant Physiol Biochem 36:817–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Osterc G, Štampar F (2011) Differences in endo/exogenous auxin profile in cuttings of different physiological ages. J Plant Physiol 168:2088–2092CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Osterc G, Petkovšek MM, Stampar F (2016) Quantification of IAA metabolites in the early stages of adventitious rooting might be predictive for subsequent differences in rooting response. J Plant Growth Regul 35:534–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Palmer JO, Rankin SM, Yagi KJ, Tobe SS (1996) Juvenile hormone esterase activity during the reproductive cycle of the ring-legged earwig. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 114:145–151Google Scholar
  52. Perveen S, Anis M (2015) Physiological and biochemical parameters influencing ex vitro establishment of the in vitro regenerants of Albizia lebbeck. Agrofor Syst 89:721–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Porfirio S, Calado ML, Noceda C, Cabrita MJ, da Silva MG, Azadi P, Peixe A (2016) Tracking biochemical changes during adventitious root formation in olive (Olea europaea L.). Sci Hortic 204:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Preil W, Engelhardt M (1977) Meristem culture of azaleas (Rhododendron simsii). In: Symposium on tissue culture for horticultural purposes, vol 78, pp 203–208Google Scholar
  55. Raymond J, Rakariyatham N, Azanza J (1993) Purification and some properties of polyphenoloxidase from sunflower seeds. Phytochemistry 34:927–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rout GR (2006) Effect of auxins on adventitious root development from single node cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and associated biochemical changes. Plant Growth Regul 48:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Satisha J, Raveendran P, Rokade N (2008) Changes in polyphenol oxidase activity during rooting of hardwood cuttings in three grape rootstocks under Indian conditions. S Afr J Enol Vitic 29:94–97Google Scholar
  58. Scandalios JG (1993) Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutases. Plant Physiol 101:7–12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Sheteiwy M, Shen H, Xu J, Guan Y, Song W, Hu J (2017) Seed polyamines metabolism induced by seed priming with spermidine and 5-aminolevulinic acid for chilling tolerance improvement in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 137:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sun YL, Hong SK (2010) Effects of plant growth regulators and L-glutamic acid on shoot organogenesis in the halophyte Leymus chinensis (Trin.). Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 100:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Syros T, Yupsanis T, Zafiriadis H, Economou A (2004) Activity and isoforms of peroxidases, lignin and anatomy, during adventitious rooting in cuttings of Ebenus cretica L. J Plant Physiol 16:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Trifunović-Momčilov M, Motyka V, Dragićević I, Petrić M, Jevremović S, Malbeck J, Holík J, Dobrev PI, Subotić A (2016) Endogenous phytohormones in spontaneously regenerated Centaurium erythraea Rafn. plants grown in vitro. J Plant Growth Regul 35:543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tsipouridis C, Thomidis T, Bladenopoulou S (2006) Rhizogenesis of GF677, Early Crest, May Crest and Arm King stem cuttings during the year in relation to carbohydrate and natural hormone content. Sci Hortic 108:200–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vatankhah E, Niknam V, Ebrahimzadeh H (2010) Activity of antioxidant enzyme during in vitro organogenesis in Crocus sativus. Biol Plant 54:509–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wiesman Z, Riov J, Epstein E (1988) Characterization and rooting ability of indole-3-butyric acid conjugates formed during rooting of mung bean cuttings. Plant Physiol 91:1080–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wiszniewska A, Nowak B, Kołton A, Sitek E, Grabski K, Dziurka M, Długosz-Grochowska O, Dziurka K, Tukaj Z (2016) Rooting response of Prunus domestica L. microshoots in the presence of phytoactive medium supplements. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 125:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yan Y-H, Li J-L, Zhang X-Q, Yang W-Y, Wan Y, Ma Y-M, Zhu Y-Q, Peng Y, Huang L-K (2014) Effect of naphthalene acetic acid on adventitious root development and associated physiological changes in stem cutting of Hemarthria compressa. PLoS ONE 9:e90700CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Yan SP, Yang RH, Wang F, Sun LN, Song XS (2017) Effect of auxins and associated metabolic changes on cuttings of hybrid aspen. Forests 8:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed S. Elmongy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yan Cao
    • 1
  • Hong Zhou
    • 1
  • Yiping Xia
    • 1
  1. 1.Physiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory of Ornamental Plants, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and BiotechnologyZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Vegetable and Floriculture, Faculty of AgricultureMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

Personalised recommendations