The distinctive estuary hydrodynamics and nutrient input make the estuary ecosystem play a key role in lake ecosystems. The Nanfei River and Zhaohe River are two main inlets of Chaohu Lake, Anhui, East China. We selected estuaries of the two rivers as representative areas to study temporal and spatial changes of bacterial communities. In August (summer) and November (autumn) 2016 and February (winter) and May (spring) 2017, 16 water and sediment samples were collected from the estuaries. Physicochemical characteristics indicate significant differences in the nutritional status and eutrophication index of the estuaries due mainly to organic input. Examination of the number of operational taxonomic units, the diversity index, the community composition, and redundancy analysis revealed the following. First, the existence of varying degrees of seasonal differences in the distribution of almost all bacteria. In addition, the species diversity in the sediment samples was higher than that in the water samples, and the dominant species differed also among these samples. Second, a large number of unknown genera were detected, especially in the sediment samples, such as unclassified Xanthomonadales incertae sedis, unclassified Anaerolineaceae, and unclassified Alcaligenaceae. Last, TP, TN, and TOC were the main influential factors that affected the bacterial community structure.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Data Availability Statement
All sequence data were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Sequence Read Archive with accession No. SRP217654.
Ansola G, Arroyo P, De Miera L E S. 2014. Characterisation of the soil bacterial community structure and composition of natural and constructed wetlands. Sci. Total. Environ., 473-474: 63–71.
Bai Y H, Shi Q, Wen D H, Li Z X, Jefferson W A, Feng C P, Tang X Y. 2012. Bacterial communities in the sediments of Dianchi Lake, a partitioned eutrophic waterbody in China. PLoS One, 7 (5): e37796.
Čanković M, Petrić I, M, Ciglenečki I. 2017. Spatiotemporal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria in extreme environment of Rogoznica Lake revealed by 16S rRNA analysis. J. Marine Syst., 172: 14–23.
Cao Y M, Zhang E L, Cheng G J. 2014. A primary study on relationships between subfossil chironomids and the distribution of aquatic macrophytes in three lowland floodplain lakes, China. Aquat. Ecol., 48 (4): 481–492.
Caporaso J G, Lauber C L, Walters W A, Berg-Lyons D, Lozupone C A, Turnbaugh P J, Fierer N, Knight R. 2011. Global patterns of 16S rRNA diversity at a depth of millions of sequences per sample. P roc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108 (S1): 4 516–4 522.
Chen Z B, Zhou Z Y, Peng X, Xiang H, Xiang S N, Jiang Z X. 2013. Effects of wet and dry seasons on the aquatic bacterial community structure of the Three Gorges Reservoir. World J. Microb iol. Biot echnol., 29 (5): 841–853.
Dam B, Ghosh W, Gupta S K D. 2009. Das Gupta. Conjugative Type 4 secretion system of a novel large plasmid from the chemoautotroph Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and construction of shuttle vectors for Alcaligenaceae. Appl. Environ. Microb iol., 75 (13): 4 362–4 373.
Dang H Y, Li J, Chen R P, Wang L, Guo L Z, Zhang Z N, M G. 2010. Diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution of sediment ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria in response to environmental gradients and coastal eutrophication in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Appl. Environ. Microb iol., 76 (14): 4 691–4 702.
Deng D G, Xie P, Zhou Q, Yang H, Cuo L G. 2007. Studies on temporal and spatial variations of phytoplankton in Lake Chaohu. J. Integr. Plant Biol., 49 (4): 409–418.
Dillon J G, McMath L M, Trout A L. 2009. Seasonal changes in bacterial diversity in the Salton Sea. Hydrobiologia, 632 (1): 49–64.
Ding W, Zhu R B, L J, Wang Q. 2014. Matrix-bound phosphine, phosphorus fractions and phosphatase activity through sediment profiles in Lake Chaohu, China. Environ. Sci. Proc ess Impacts, 16 (5): 1 135–1 144.
Edmonds-Wilson S L, Nurinova N I, Zapka C A, Fierer N, Wilson M. 2015. Review of human hand microbiome research. J. Dermatol. Sci., 80 (1): 3–12.
Eggleton J, Thomas K V. 2004. A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events. Environ. Int., 30 (7): 973–980.
Eiler A, Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka K, Martínez-García M, McMahon K D, Stepanauskas R, Andersson S G, Bertilsson S. 2014. Productivity and salinity structuring of the microplankton revealed by comparative freshwater metagenomics. Environ. Microb iol., 16 (9): 2 682–2 698.
Fernández-Luqueño F, C, Marsch R, Martínez-Suárez C, Vázquez-Núñez E, Dendooven L. 2011. Microbial communities to mitigate contamination of PAHs in soil—possibilities and challenges: a review. Environ. Sci. Pollut. R es., 18 (1): 12–30.
Fuhrman J A, McCallum K, Davis A A. 1993. Phylogenetic diversity of subsurface marine microbial communities from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Appl. Environ. Microb iol., 59 (5): 1 294–1 302.
Gao X Y, Ming H X, Chen J Y, Li J Y, Han J L, Lin F A, Fan J F. 2014. Bacterial community in Dalian Bay petroleum pollution sediments. Acta Oceanol. Sin., 36 (6): 58–66. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Ghosh W, Bagchi A, Mandal S, Dam B, Roy P. 2005. Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, neutrophilic, tetrathionate-oxidizing, facultatively chemolithotrophic Betaproteobacterium isolated from soil from a temperate orchard in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Micr obiol., 55 (5): 1 779–1 787.
Ghylin T W, Garcia S L, Moya F, Oyserman B O, Schwientek P, Forest K T, Mutschler J, Dwulit-Smith J, Chan L K, Martinez-Garcia M, Sczyrba A, Stepanauskas R, Grossart H P, Woyke T, Warnecke F, Malmstrom R, S, McMahon K D. 2014. Comparative single-cell genomics reveals potential ecological niches for the freshwater acI Actinobacteria lineage. ISME J., 8 (12): 2 503–2 516.
Haukka K, Kolmonen E, Hyder R, Hietala J, Vakkilainen K, Kairesalo T, Haario H, Sivonen K. 2006. Effect of nutrient loading on bacterioplankton community composition in Lake Mesocosms. Microb. Ecol., 51 (2): 137–146.
Henson M W, Lanclos V C, Faircloth B C, Thrash J C. 2018. Cultivation and genomics of the first freshwater SAR11 (LD12) isolate. ISME J., 12 (7): 1 846–1 860.
Huang J, Zhan J Y, H M, Wu F, Deng X Z. 2013. Evaluation of the impacts of land use on water quality: a case study in The Chaohu Lake Basin. Scientific World J., 2013: 329187.
Huber J A, Mark Welch D B, Morrison H G, Huse S M, Neal P R, Butterfield D A, Sogin M L. 2007. Microbial population structures in the deep marine biosphere. Sci ence, 318 (5847): 97–100.
Hug L A, Castelle C J, Wrighton K C, Thomas B C, Sharon I, Frischkorn K R, K H, Tringe S G, Banfield J F. 2013. Community genomic analyses constrain the distribution of metabolic traits across the Chloroflexi phylum and indicate roles in sediment carbon cycling. Microbiome, 1 (1): 22.
Kaluzhnaya O V, Itskovich V B, McCormack G P. 2011. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with the endemic freshwater sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. World J. Microb iol. Biot echnol., 27 (8): 1 955–1 959.
Kasai Y, Kishira H, Syutsubo K, Harayama S. 2001. Molecular detection of marine bacterial populations on beaches contaminated by the Nakhodka tanker oil-spill accident. Environ. Microb iol., 3 (4): 246–255.
Kielak A M, Barreto C C, Kowalchuk G A, van Veen J A, Kuramae E E. 2016. The ecology of Acidobacteria: moving beyond genes and genomes. Front. Microbiol., 7: 744.
Kong M, Dong Z L, Chao J Y, Zhang Y M, Yin H B. 2015. Bioavailability and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of Lake Chaohu. China Environ. Sci., 35 (4): 1 223–1 229. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Lane D J. 1991. 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In: Stackebrandt E, Goodfellow M eds. Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics. Wiley, New York. p.115–175.
Liang B, Wang L Y, Zhou Z C, Mbadinga S M, Zhou L, Liu J F, Yang S Z, Gu J D, Mu B Z. 2016. High frequency of Thermodesulfovibrio spp. and Anaerolineaceae in association with Methanoculleus spp. in a long-term incubation of n -alkanes-degrading methanogenic enrichment culture. Front. Microbiol., 7: 1 431.
Lin W, Pan Y X. 2015. A putative greigite-type magnetosome gene cluster from the candidate phylum Latescibacteria. Env iron. Mircobiol. Rep., 7 (2): 237–242.
Lindh M V, R, Degerman R, Lundin D, Andersson A, Pinhassi J. 2015. Consequences of increased terrestrial dissolved organic matter and temperature on bacterioplankton community composition during a Baltic Sea mesocosm experiment. AMBIO, 44 (S3): 402–412.
Liu E F, Shen J, Birch G F, Yang X D, Wu Y H, B. 2012. Human-induced change in sedimentary trace metals and phosphorus in Chaohu Lake, China, over the past halfmillennium. J. Paleolimnol., 47 (4): 677–691.
Liu L M, Yang J, Zhang Y Y. 2011. Genetic diversity patterns of microbial communities in a subtropical riverine ecosystem (Jiulong River, Southeast China). Hydrobiologia, 678 (1): 113–125.
Logares R, J, Heinrich F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Bertilsson S. 2010. Infrequent transitions between saline and fresh waters in one of the Most Abundant Microbial Lineages (SAR11). Mol. Biol. Evol., 27 (2): 347–357.
Lovley D R, Ueki T, Zhang T, Malvankar N S, Shrestha P M, Flanagan K A, Aklujkar M, Butler J E, Giloteaux L, Rotaru A E, D E, Franks A E, Orellana R, Risso C, Nevin K P. 2011. Geobacter: the microbe electric’s physiology, ecology, and practical applications. Adv. Microb. Physiol., 59: 1–100.
Lv X F, Yu J B, Fu Y Q, Ma B, Qiu F Z, Ning K, H F. 2014. A meta-analysis of the bacterial and archaeal diversity observed in wetland soils. Sci World J., 2014: 437684.
Mehta M P, Baross J A. 2006. Nitrogen fixation at 92°C by a hydrothermal vent archaeon. Science, 314 (5806): 1 783–1 786.
Meng P, Ma T. 2015. Discussion on the current situation, causes and ecological treatment of water pollution in Chaohu Lake. Res. Economi. Environ. Pro t., (1): 171–173. (in Chinese)
Mills H J, Martinez R J, Story S, Sobecky P A. 2004. Identification of members of the metabolically active microbial populations associated with Beggiatoa species mat communities from Gulf of Mexico cold-seep sediments. Appl. Environ. Microb iol., 70 (9): 5 447–5 458.
Nalewajko C, Murphy T P. 2001. Effects of temperature, and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus on the abundance of Anabaena and Microcystis in Lake Biwa, Japan: an experimental approach. Limnology, 2 (1): 45–48.
Newton R J, Jones S E, Eiler A, McMahon K D, Bertilsson S. 2011. A guide to the natural history of freshwater lake bacteria. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 75 (1): 14–49.
Newton R J, McMahon K D. 2011. Seasonal differences in bacterial community composition following nutrient additions in a eutrophic lake. Environ. Microbiol, 13 (4): 887–899.
Paerl H W, Dyble J, Moisander P H, Noble R T, Piehler M F, Pinckney J L, Steppe T F, Twomey L, Valdes L M. 2003. Microbial indicators of aquatic ecosystem change: current applications to eutrophication studies. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 46 (3): 233–246.
Parveen B, Reveilliez J P, Mary I, Ravet V, Bronner G, Mangot J F, Domaizon I, Debroas D. 2011. Diversity and dynamics of free-living and particle-associated Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in relation to phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 77 (3): 461–476.
Podosokorskaya O A, Kadnikov V V, Gavrilov S N, Mardanov A V, Merkel A Y, Karnachuk O V, Ravin N V, Bonch-Osmolovskaya E A, Kublanov I V. 2013. Characterization of Melioribacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium from the class Ignavibacteria, and a proposal of a novel bacterial phylum Ignavibacteriae. Environ. Microbiol., 15 (6): 1 759–1 771.
Riccio M L, Pallecchi L, R, Rossolini G M. 2001. In70 of plasmid pAX22, a bla VIM-1 -containing integron carrying a new aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene cassette. Antimicrob. Age nts Chemother., 45 (4): 1 249–1 253.
Robarts R D, Zohary T. 1987. Temperature effects on photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and growth rates of bloom‐forming cyanobacteria. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh wat. Res., 21 (3): 391–399.
Ruban V, J F, Pardo P, G, Muntau H, Quevauviller P. 2001. Development of a harmonised phosphorus extraction procedure and certification of a sediment reference material. J. Environ. Monit., 3 (1): 121–125.
Schneider D, Arp G, Reimer A, Reitner J, Daniel R. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific. PLoS One, 8 (6): e66662.
Shade A, Read J S, Welkie D G, Kratz T K, Wu C H, McMahon K D. 2011. Resistance, resilience and recovery: aquatic bacterial dynamics after water column disturbance. Environ. Microbiol., 13 (10): 2 752–2 767.
Shang G P, Shang J C. 2005. Causes and control countermeasures of eutrophication in Chaohu lake, China. Chin. Geogr. Sci., 15 (4): 348–354.
Song H, Li Z, Du B, Wang G, Ding Y. 2012. Bacterial communities in sediments of the shallow Lake Dongping in China. J. Appl. Microbiol., 112 (1): 79–89.
Sun Q Y, Ma X L, Yang G D, Chen Z, Wu H L, Xuan H X. 2010. Studies on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds around Chaohu Lake. Environ. Sci., 31 (7): 1 510–1 515. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Tang X M, Li L L, Shao K Q, Wang B W, Cai X L, Zhang L, Chao J Y, Gao G. 2015. Pyrosequencing analysis of freeliving and attached bacterial communities in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, a large eutrophic shallow lake in China. Can. J. Microbiol., 61 (1): 22–31.
Ter Braak C J F, Smilauer P. 2002. CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User’s Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (Version 4.5). Wageningen University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
Thomas S H, Padilla-Crespo E, Jardine P M, Sanford R A, Löffler F E. 2009. Diversity and distribution of Anaeromyxobacter strains in a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment with a nonuniform groundwater flow. Appl. Environ. Microb iol., 75 (11): 3 679–3 687.
Whitton B A, Potts M. 2000. The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Boston.
Wyndham R C, Singh R K, Straus N A. 1988. Catabolic instability, plasmid gene deletion and recombination in Alcaligenes sp. BR60. Arch. Microbiol., 150 (3): 237–243.
Xiao H H, J R. 2013. Characterization microbial community structure in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through 16S rRNA clone library. J. Bas ic Sci. Eng., 21 (3): 522–531. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Xing P, Kong F X. 2007. Intra-habitat heterogeneity of environmental factors regulating bacterioplankton community composition in Lake Taihu, China. Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 48 (2): 113–122.
Xue Y G, Liu F, Sun M. 2018. Community structure and influencing factors of bacterioplankton in spring in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu. Environ. Sci., 3 9 (3): 1 151–1 158. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yamada T, Sekiguchi Y. 2009. Cultivation of uncultured chloroflexi subphyla: significance and ecophysiology of formerly uncultured chloroflexi ‘subphylum i’ with natural and biotechnological relevance. Microbes. Environ., 24 (3): 205–216.
Yu L, Kong F X, Zhang M, Yang Z, Shi X L, Du M Y. 2014. The dynamics of Microcystis genotypes and Microcystin production and associations with environmental factors during blooms in Lake Chaohu, China. Toxins, 6 (12): 3 238–3 257.
Zan F Y, Huo S L, Xi B D, Li Q Q, Liao H Q, Zhang J T. 2011. Phosphorus distribution in the sediments of a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China. Environ. Earth Sci., 62 (8): 1 643–1 653.
Zan F Y, Huo S L, Xi B D, Zhu C W, H Q, Zhang J T, K M. 2012. A 100-year sedimentary record of natural and anthropogenic impacts on a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China. J. Environ. Monit., 14 (3): 804–816.
Zhang L, Gao G, Tang X M, Shao K Q, Gong Y. 2016. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial communities in Lake Bosten, a large brackish inland lake in the arid northwest of China. Can. J. Microbiol., 62 (6): 455–463.
Zhang L, Wang S R, Li Y P, Zhao H C, Qian W B. 2015. Spatial and temporal distributions of microorganisms and their role in the evolution of Erhai Lake eutrophication. Environ. Earth Sci., 74 (5): 3 887–3 896.
Zhao Y, Wang Z Q, Z P, Xie C P, Fan Q, Wang Y. 2002. Investigation on water pollution by algae at locations of water collection in Chaohu Lake. J. Environ. Health, 19 (4): 316–318. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Zhou Q, Takenaka S, Murakami S, Seesuriyachan P, Kuntiya A, Aoki K. 2007. Screening and characterization of bacteria that can utilize ammonium and nitrate ions simultaneously under controlled cultural conditions. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 103 (2): 185–191.
Anonymous reviewers are acknowledged for their constructive comments and helpful suggestions.
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41601573, 41771235), the Key University Science Research Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2019A0641), the Linkage Project of Anhui Public Welfare Technology Application Research (No. 1704f0804053), and the Science and the Technology Innovation Strategy and Soft Science Research Special Project of Anhui Province (No. 1706a02020048)
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, L., Li, L., Liu, M. et al. Temporal and spatial variations of bacterial community compositions in two estuaries of Chaohu Lake. J. Ocean. Limnol. 38, 745–758 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-019-9096-7
- water and sediment
- bacterial diversity
- bacterial community structure