Magnetic minerals in marine sediments are often masked by the primary natural remanent magnetization and material source signals. In order to understand sedimentary environment and sources of sediments in the abyss, we studied 126 samples of five bottom surface cores collected by the Jiaolong Submersible at 4000–7000 m in depth during the third stage of the China’s 38th Ocean Voyage. The magnetic properties of the sediments were analyzed using Thermosusceptibility (k-T) curves and Day plot. The results show that the magnetic minerals in the sediments of the Yap Trench are mainly maghemite, and the overall magnetic and soft magnetic properties were strong. The magnetic particles of sediments are dominated by pseudo single domains (PSD) grains. The main source of sediment is locally-derived basalt debris and volcanic debris, and the process of sedimentation is gravity-like flow deposition.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Data Availability Statement
The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author.
Arai K, Naruse H, Miura R, Kawamura K, Hino R, Ito Y, Inazu D, Yokokawa M, Izumi N, Murayama M, Kasaya T. 2013. Tsunami-generated turbidity current of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Geology, 41(11): 1 195–1 198.
Borowski W S, Rodriguez N M, Paull C K, Ussler W. 2013. Are 34S-enriched authigenic sulfide minerals a proxy for elevated methane flux and gas hydrates in the geologic record?, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 43: 381–395.
Bridge J, Demicco R. 2011. Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits, Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 17(1): 92–94.
Canfield D E, Olesen C A, Cox R P. 2006. Temperature and its control of isotope fractionation by a sulfate-reducing bacterium. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(3): 548–561.
Day R, Fuller M, Schmidt V A. 1977. Hysteresis properties of titanomagnetites: Grain–size and compositional dependence, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 13(4): 260–267.
Dewangan P, Basavaiah N, Badesab F K, Usapkara A, Mazumdar A, Joshi R, Ramprasad T. 2013. Diagenesis of magnetic minerals in a gas hydrate/cold seep environment off the Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal, Marine Geology, 340: 57–70.
Dong Y, Li J H, Zhang W C, Zhang W Y, Zhao Y, Xiao T, Wu L F, Pan H M. 2016. The detection of magnetotactic bacteria in deep sea sediments from the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province, Environmental Microbiology Reports, 8(2): 239–249.
Dunlop D J, Özdemir Ö, Schmidt P. W. 1997. Paleomagnetism and paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin 2. Origin of an anomalously high unlocking temperature, The Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 102(B12): 27 285–27 295.
Dunlop D J, Özdemir Ö. 2001. Rock Magnetism: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Cambridge University Press, New York. p.1–573.
Dura T, Cisternas M, Horton B P, Ely L L, Nelson A R, Wesson R L, Pilarczyk J E. 2015. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile, Quaternary Science Reviews, 113: 93–111.
Evans M E, Heler F. 2003. Environmental Magnetism. Principles and Applications of Enviromagnetics. Academic Press, San Diego. p.1–299.
Fujiwara T, Tamura C, Nishizawa A, Fujioka K, Kobayashi K, Iwabuchi Y. 2000. Morphology and tectonics of the Yap Trench, Marine Geophysical Researches, 21(1–2): 69–86.
Gallo N D, Cameron J, Hardy K, Fryer P, Bartlett D H, Levin L A. 2015. Submersible- and lander-observed community patterns in the Mariana and New Britain trenches: Influence of productivity and depth on epibenthic and scavenging communities, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 99: 119–133.
Geissman J. 2004. Environmental magnetism: principles and applications of enviromagnetics, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 85(20): 202.
Ghafarpour A, Khormali F, Balsam W, Karimi A, Ayoubi S. 2016. Climatic interpretation of loess-paleosol sequences at Mobarakabad and Aghband, Northern Iran, Quaternary Research, 86(1): 95–109.
Guan H C, Zhu C, Zhu T X, Wu L, Li Y H. 2016. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility and geochemical characteristics of the loess in the Chaohu lake basin: Implications for the origin, palaeoclimatic change and provenance, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 117: 170–183.
Jamieson A J, Fujii T, Solan M, Matsumoto A K, Bagley P M, Priede I G. 2009. First findings of decapod crustacea in the hadal zone, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 56(4): 641–647.
Jiang H. 2010. Dynamical mechanism and depositional responses of turbidity current sedimentation, Oil & Gas Geology, 31 (4): 428–435. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Kars M, Musgrave R J, Kodama K, Jonas A S, Bordiga M, Ruebsam W, Mleneck-Vautravers M J, Bauersachs T. 2017. Impact of climate change on the magnetic mineral assemblage in marine sediments from Izu rear arc, NW Pacific Ocean, over the last 1 Myr, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 480: 53–69.
Kawamura N, Kawamura K, Ishikawa N. 2008. Rock magnetic and geochemical analyses of surface sediment characteristics in deep ocean environments: A case study across the Ryukyu Trench, Earth, Planets and Space, 60(3): 179–189.
Kim W, Doh S J, Yu Y, Lee Y L. 2013. Magnetic evaluation of sediment provenance in the northern East China Sea using fuzzy c-means cluster analysis, Marine Geology, 337: 9–19.
Kirscher U, Winklhofer M, Hackl M, Bachtadse V. 2018. Detailed Jaramillo field reversals recorded in lake sediments from Armenia-Lower mantle influence on the magnetic field revisited, Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 484: 124–134.
Kitahashi T, Jenkins R G, Nomaki H, Shimanaga M, Fujikura K, Kojima, S. 2014. Effect of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake on deep-sea meiofaunal assemblages inhabiting the landward slope of the Japan Trench, Marine Geology, 358: 128–137.
Kitajima H, Saffer D M. 2015. Consolidation state of incoming sediments to the Nankai Trough subduction zone: Implications for sediment deformation and properties, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15(7): 2 821–2 839.
Li B, Wang Y, Zhong H X, Zhang J Y, Li S, Li X J, Gao H F. 2016. Magnetic properties of turbidites in the Huatung Basin and their environmental implications, Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 59(9): 3 330–3 342. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Li B, Li S, Wang Y, Zhang J Y, Li X J, Zhong H X, Tian C J. 2015. Magnetostratigraphy of core gx149 from the West Philippine Sea, Marine Geology Frontiers, 31(8): 34–40. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Liu J, Zhu R X, Li T G, Li A C, Li J. 2007. Sediment magnetic signature of the mid-Holocene paleoenvironmental change in the central Okinawa Trough, Marine Geology, 239(1–2): 19–31.
Liu Q, Banerjee S K, Jackson M J, Chen F H, Pan Y X, Zhu R X. 2003. An integrated study of the grain-size-dependent magnetic mineralogy of the Chinese loess/paleosol and its environmental significance, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(B9): 2 437.
Liu S M, Zhang W G, He Q, Li D J, Liu H, Yu L Z. 2010. Magnetic properties of East China Sea shelf sediments off the Yangtze Estuary: influence of provenance and particle size, Geomorphology, 119(3–4): 212–220.
Lund S, Oppo D, Curry W. 2017. Late Quaternary paleomagnetic secular variation recorded in deep-sea sediments from the Demerara Rise, equatorial West Atlantic Ocean, Physics of the Earth & Planetary Interiors, 272: 17–26.
Maher B A, Thompson R. 1999. Quaternary Climates, Environments and Magnetism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. p.390.
Meng Q Y, Li A C, Jing N, Xu Z K, Liu J G. 2006. Magnetostratigraphic and magnetic properties of marine sediments from the East Philippine Sea, Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 26(3): 57–63. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Novosel I, Spence G D, Hyndman R D. 2005. Reduced magnetization produced by increased methane flux at a gas hydrate vent, Marine Geology, 216(4): 265–274.
Oldfield F. 1994. Toward the discrimination of fine-grained ferrimagnets by magnetic measurements in lake and near-shore marine sediments, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 99(B5): 9 045–9 050.
Pautot G, Nakamura K, Huchon P, Angelier J, Bourgois J, Fujioka K, Kanazawa T, Nakamura Y, Ogawa Y, Séguret M, Takeuchi A. 1987. Deep-sea submersible survey in the Suruga, Sagami and Japan Trenches: preliminary results of the 1985 Kaiko cruise, Leg 2, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 83(1–4): 300–312.
Prajith A, Rao V P, Kessarkar P M. 2015. Magnetic properties of sediments in cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India: Inferences on provenance and pollution, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 99(1–2): 338–345.
Riisager P, Riisager J, Abrahamsen N, Waagstein R. 2002. New paleomagnetic pole and magnetostratigraphy of Faroe Islands flood volcanics, North Atlantic igneous province, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 201(2): 261–276.
Roza J, Jackson B, Heaton E, Negrini R. 2016. Paleomagnetic secular variation and environmental magnetism of Holocene-age sediments from Tulare Lake, CA, Quaternary Research, 85(3): 391–398.
Sim M S, Bosak T, Ono S. 2011. Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation, Science, 333(6038): 74–77.
Thompson R, Oldfield F. 1986. Environmental Magnetism. Allen & Unwin Press, Sydney. p.45.
Yang J C, Cui Z, Dada O A, Yang Y M, Yu H J, Xu Y, Lin Z L, Chen Y, Tang X. 2018. Distribution and enrichment of trace metals in surface marine sediments collected by the manned submersible Jiaolong in the Yap Trench, northwest Pacific Ocean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135: 1 035–1 041.
Yang T, Dekkers M J, Zhang B. 2016. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone: evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic ‘geothermometer’, Geophysical Journal International, 205(1): 332–344.
The authors would like to thank Professor Wang Weiguo and Dr Liu Jianxing for providing insightful comments on this paper, and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and helpful suggestions, which have improved the manuscript.
Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB755901), the Taishan Scholar Project Funding (No. tspd2016007), the 13th Five-Year Plan Program of the China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association Research (No. DY135-S2-2-08), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M610403), and the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2018YFC0309802, 2018YFC0309903)
About this article
Cite this article
Chen, Y., Yang, J., Dada, O.A. et al. Magnetic properties indicate the sources of hadal sediments in the Yap Trench, northwest Pacific Ocean. J. Ocean. Limnol. 38, 665–678 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-019-8370-z
- magnetic property
- material resource
- hadal sediment
- Yap Trench