Advertisement

Properties of coarse particles in suspended particulate matter of the North Yellow Sea during summer

  • Kainan Zhang (张凯南)
  • Zhenyan Wang (王珍岩)
  • Wenjian Li (李文建)
  • Jun Yan (阎军)
Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Fine particles in seawater commonly form large porous aggregates. Aggregate density and settling velocity determine the behavior of this suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the water column. However, few studies of aggregate particles over a continental shelf have been undertaken. In our case study, properties of aggregate particles, including size and composition, over the continental shelf of the North Yellow Sea were investigated. During a scientific cruise in July 2016, in situ effective particle size distributions of SPM at 10 stations were measured, while temperature and turbidity measurements and samples of water were obtained from surface, middle, and bottom layers. Dispersed and inorganic particle size distributions were determined in the laboratory. The in situ SPM was divided into (1) small particles (<32 μm), (2) medium particles (32–256 μm) and (3) large particles (>256 μm). Large particles and medium particles dominated the total volume concentrations (VCs) of in situ SPM. After dispersion, the VCs of medium particles decreased to low values (<0.1 μL/L). The VCs of large particles in the surface and middle layers also decreased markedly, although they had higher peak values (0.1–1 μL/L). This suggests that almost all in situ medium particles and some large particles were aggregated, while other large particles were single particles. Correlation analysis showed that primary particles <32 μm influenced the formation of these aggregates. Microscopic examination revealed that these aggregates consisted of both organic and inorganic fine particles, while large particles were mucus-bound organic aggregates or individual plankton. The vertical distribution of coarser particles was clearly related to water stratification. Generally, medium aggregate particles were dominant in SPM of the bottom layer. A thermocline blocked resuspension of fine material into upper layers, yielding low VCs of medium-sized aggregate particles in the surface layer. Abundant large biogenic particles were present in both surface and middle layers.

Keywords

suspended particulate matter (SPM) coarse particles aggregates North Yellow Sea laser in situ scattering and transmissometery (LISST) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Data acquisition and sample collection were supported by the NSFC Open Research Cruise (Cruise No. NORC2016-06), funded by the Shiptime Sharing Project of the NSFC. Field research was carried out onboard R/V Dongfanghong 2 of the Ocean University of China.

References

  1. Adams W A. 1973. The effect of organic matter on the bulk and true densities of some uncultivated podzolic soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 24 (1): 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal Y C, Pottsmith H C. 2000. Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport. Marine Geology, 168 (1-4): 89–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alldredge A L, Passow U, Logan B E. 1993. The abundance and significance of a class of large, transparent organic particles in the ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 40 (6): 1131–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bao X W, Li N, Yao Z G, Wu D X. 2009. Seasonal variation characteristics of temperature and salinity of the North Yellow Sea. Periodical of Ocean University of China, 39 (4): 553–562. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  5. Bauer J E, Druffel E R M, Wolgast D M, Griffin S. 2002. Temporal and regional variability in sources and cycling of DOC and POC in the northwest Atlantic continental shelf and slope. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 49 (20): 4387–4419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biggs C A, Lant P A. 2000. Activated sludge flocculation: online determination of floc size and the effect of shear. Water Research, 34 (9): 2542–2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braithwaite K M, Bowers D G, Nimmo Smith W A M, Graham G W, Agrawal Y C, Mikkelsen O A. 2010. Observations of particle density and scattering in the Tamar Estuary. Marine Geology, 277 (1-4): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davies E J, Nimmo-Smith W A M, Agrawal Y C, Souza A J. 2012. LISST-100 response to large particles. Marine Geology, 307-310: 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De La Rocha C L, Passow U. 2007. Factors influencing the sinking of POC and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 54 (5-7): 639–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dong L X, Guan W B, Chen Q, Li X H, Liu X H, Zeng X M. 2011. Sediment transport in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 93 (3): 248–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dong L X, Su J L, Wang K S. 1989. The relationship between tidal current field and sediment transport in the Huanghai Sea and the Bohai Sea. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 8(4): 587–600.Google Scholar
  12. Dupont J P, Lafite R, Huault M F, Hommeril P, Meyer R. 1994. Continental/marine ratio changes in suspended and settled matter across a macrotidal estuary (the Seine estuary, northwestern France). Marine Geology, 120 (1-2): 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eisma D. 1986. Flocculation and de-flocculation of suspended matter in estuaries. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 20 (2-3): 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fang G H. 1986. Tide and tidal current charts for the marginal seas adjacent to china. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 4 (1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fettweis M, Francken F, Pison V, Van den Eynde D. 2006. Suspended particulate matter dynamics and aggregate sizes in a high turbidity area. Marine Geology, 235 (1-4): 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. George D A, Hill P S, Milligan T G. 2007. Flocculation, heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) and the sand-mud transition on the Adriatic continental shelf, Italy. Continental Shelf Research, 27 (3-4): 475–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guan B X. 1963. A preliminary study of the temperature variations and the characteristics of the circulation of the cold water mass of the Yellow Sea. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 5 (4): 255–284.Google Scholar
  18. Guinder V A, Popovich C A, Perillo G M E. 2009. Particulate suspended matter concentrations in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina: implication for the development of phytoplankton blooms. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 85 (1): 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo X W, Zhang Y S, Zhang F J, Cao Q Y. 2010. Characteristics and flux of settling particulate matter in neritic waters: the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 57 (11-12): 1058–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hodder K R, Gilbert R. 2007. Evidence for flocculation in glacier-fed Lillooet Lake, British Columbia. Water Research, 41 (12): 2748–2762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hsu R T, Liu J T. 2010. In -situ estimations of the density and porosity of flocs of varying sizes in a submarine canyon. Marine Geology, 276 (1-4): 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hurley A J, Hill P S, Milligan T G, Law B A. 2016. Optical methods for estimating apparent density of sediment in suspension. Methods in Oceanography, 17: 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iversen M H, Nowald N, Ploug H, Jackson G A, Fischer G. 2010. High resolution profiles of vertical particulate organic matter export offCape Blanc, Mauritania: degradation processes and ballasting effects. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 57 (6): 771–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jouon A, Ouillon S, Douillet P, Lefebvre J P, Fernandez J M, Mari X, Froidefond J M. 2008. Spatio-temporal variability in suspended particulate matter concentration and the role of aggregation on size distribution in a coral reef lagoon. Marine Geology, 256 (1-4): 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karageorgis A P, Georgopoulos D, Kanellopoulos T D, Mikkelsen O A, Pagou K, Kontoyiannis H, Pavlidou A, Anagnostou C. 2012. Spatial and seasonal variability of particulate matter optical and size properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 105-108: 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Khelifa A, Hill P S. 2006. Models for effective density and settling velocity of flocs. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 44 (3): 390–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kiriakoulakis K, Vilas J C, Blackbird S J, Arístegui J, WolffG A. 2009. Seamounts and organic matter—is there an effect? The case of Sedlo and Seine seamounts, Part 2. Composition of suspended particulate organic matter. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56 (25): 2631–2645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kranenburg C. 1994. The fractal structure of cohesive sediment aggregates. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 39 (6): 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Le Moigne F A C, Boye M, Masson A, Corvaisier R, Grossteffan E, Guéneugues A, Pondaven P. 2013. Description of the biogeochemical features of the subtropical southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean south of South Africa during the austral summer of the International Polar Year. Biogeosciences, 10 (1): 281–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee J, Liu J T, Hung C C, Lin S, Du X Q. 2016. River plume induced variability of suspended particle characteristics. Marine Geology, 380: 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lie H J, Cho C H. 2016. Seasonal circulation patterns of the Yellow and East China Seas derived from satellite-tracked drifter trajectories and hydrographic observations. Progress in Oceanography, 146: 121–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu J, Qiao F L, Wang X H, Wang Y G, Teng Y, Xia C S. 2011. A numerical study of transport dynamics and seasonal variability of the Yellow River sediment in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 95 (1): 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manning A J, Dyer K R. 1999. A laboratory examination of floc characteristics with regard to turbulent shearing. Marine Geology, 160(1):147–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Many G, Bourrin F, de Madron X D, Pairaud I, GangloffA, Doxaran D, Ody A, Verney R, Menniti C, Le Berre D, Jacquet M. 2016. Particle assemblage characterization in the Rhone River ROFI. Journal of Marine Systems, 157: 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Markussen T N, Andersen T J. 2013. A simple method for calculating in situ floc settling velocities based on effective density functions. Marine Geology, 344: 10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marzooghi S, Shi C J, Dentel S K, ImhoffP T. 2017. Modeling biosolids drying through a laminated hydrophobic membrane. Water Research, 111: 244–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mikkelsen O A, Hill P S, Milligan T G, Chant R J. 2005. In situ particle size distributions and volume concentrations from a LISST-100 laser particle sizer and a digital floc camera. Continental Shelf Research, 25 (16): 1959–1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mikkelsen O A, Hill P S, Milligan T G. 2006. Single-grain, microfloc and macrofloc volume variations observed with a LISST-100 and a digital floc camera. Journal of Sea Research, 55 (2): 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mikkelsen O A, Hill P S, Milligan T G. 2007. Seasonal and spatial variation of floc size, settling velocity, and density on the inner Adriatic Shelf (Italy). Continental Shelf Research, 27 (3-4): 417–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mikkelsen O A, Pejrup M. 2000. In situ particle size spectra and density of particle aggregates in a dredging plume. Marine Geology, 170 (3-4): 443–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Milligan T G. 1996. In situ particle (floc) size measurements with the benthos 373 plankton silhouette camera. Journal of Sea Research, 36 (1-2): 93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mitchell H L, Mersch S H. 2010. Nephelometric Turbidity Sensor Device: US, US 7659980 B1. 2010-02-09.Google Scholar
  43. Modéran J, David V, Bouvais P, Richard P, Fichet D. 2012. Organic matter exploitation in a highly turbid environment: planktonic food web in the Charente estuary, France. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 98: 126–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Myklestad S M. 1995. Release of extracellular products by phytoplankton with special emphasis on polysaccharides. Science of t he Total Environment, 165 (1-3): 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Naimie C E, Blain C A, Lynch D R. 2001. Seasonal mean circulation in the Yellow Sea-a model-generated climatology. Continental Shelf Research, 21 (6-7): 667–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pang C G, Li K, Hu D X. 2016. Net accumulation of suspended sediment and its seasonal variability dominated by shelf circulation in the Yellow and East China Seas. Marine Geology, 371: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Papenmeier S, Schrottke K, Bartholomä A. 2014. Over time and space changing characteristics of estuarine suspended particles in the German Weser and Elbe estuaries. Journal of Sea Research, 85: 104–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Qiao L L, Wang Y Z, Li G X, Deng S G, Liu Y, Mu L. 2011. Distribution of suspended particulate matter in the northern Bohai bay in summer and its relation with thermocline. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 93 (3): 212–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramondenc S, Goutx M, Lombard F, Santinelli C, Stemmann L, Gorsky G, Guidi L. 2016. An initial carbon export assessment in the Mediterranean Sea based on drifting sediment traps and the Underwater Vision Profiler data sets. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 117: 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reynolds R A, Stramski D, Wright V M, Wozniak S B. 2010. Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2010, 115 (C8): C08024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Uncles R J, Stephens J A, Law D J. 2006. Turbidity maximum in the macrotidal, highly turbid Humber Estuary, UK: flocs, fluid mud, stationary suspensions and tidal bores. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 67 (1-2): 30–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Leussen W. 2011. Macroflocs, fine-grained sediment transports, and their longitudinal variations in the Ems Estuary. Ocean Dynamics, 61 (2-3): 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang Y H, Wang S, Liu M. 2017. Magnetic properties indicate sediment provenance and distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Continental Shelf Research, 140: 84–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Whitehouse R J S, Soulsby R L, Roberts W, Mitchener H J. 2000. Dynamics of Estuarine Muds. Thomas Telford, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams N D, Walling D E, Leeks G J L. 2007. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment. Water Research, 41 (5): 1081–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Winterwerp J C. 1998. A simple model for turbulence induced flocculation of cohesive sediment. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36 (3): 309–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Xia X M, Li Y, Yang H, Wu C Y, Sing T H, Pong H K. 2004. Observations on the size and settling velocity distributions of suspended sediment in the Pearl River Estuary, China. Continental Shelf Research, 24 (16): 1809–1826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang Y S, Zhang F J, Guo X W, Zhang M P. 2004. Vertical flux of the settling particulate matter in the water column of the Yellow Sea in summer. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 35 (3): 230–238. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  59. Zhao B R, Cao D M, Pan H, Tu D Z. 1994. Characteristics of Tidal Mixing in the Yellow Sea and its Effects on the Boundary of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass. Studia Marina Sinica, (35): 1–10. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kainan Zhang (张凯南)
    • 1
    • 3
  • Zhenyan Wang (王珍岩)
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wenjian Li (李文建)
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jun Yan (阎军)
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Mineral ResourcesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations