Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 1287–1302 | Cite as

Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

  • Wenzheng Zhou (周文正)
  • Fei Yu (于非)
  • Feng Nan (南峰)


Variations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009–2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300–500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.


Kerama Gap Kuroshio Ryukyu Current HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) water exchange 


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The satellite-tracked drifting buoy data are available from the Global Drifter Program (GDP), with support from their website ( The World Ocean Database (WOD) is available from the website ( html). The HYCOM data are available for download from the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) from the website (


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Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenzheng Zhou (周文正)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fei Yu (于非)
    • 1
  • Feng Nan (南峰)
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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