Generation of strong oxidizing radicals from plate-like morphology of BiVO4 for the fast degradation of crystal violet dye under visible light


Highly crystalline bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) powder was prepared by a template-free hydrothermal method under different pH (~ 2, 3, 5, 8, 11) reaction conditions and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance techniques. It was found that variation in pH of the precursor solution can influence morphology, structure and, consequently, photocatalytic efficiency of obtained products. The spherical BiVO4 nanoparticles were obtained at pH 2 and 3, nanorods at pH 5 and 8, whereas nanoplates were obtained at pH 11. Among the different pH-based BiVO4 samples, the one prepared at pH ~ 11 (BiVO4-11) exhibited surface area 102.74 m2/g and degraded the dye solution completely within 90 min. Therefore, pH-controlled hydrothermal reaction can be useful to synthesize nanostructures with different morphologies efficiently for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of pollutant under visible light.

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All the experiments had been performed at Government College University in Faisalabad, Pakistan. SEM, EDX, XPS, BET, Raman, PL and ESR techniques were supported by Dr. Zhengjun Zhang, Advanced Key Laboratory for New Ceramics, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 100084.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

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Correspondence to Yasir Javed or Haifa Zhai.

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Sajid, M.M., Shad, N.A., Afzal, A.M. et al. Generation of strong oxidizing radicals from plate-like morphology of BiVO4 for the fast degradation of crystal violet dye under visible light. Appl. Phys. A 126, 314 (2020).

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  • Hydrothermal method
  • Crystal violet dye
  • Photocatalytic degradation
  • Hydroxyl radical generation
  • Surface area analysis