Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction of marbles consolidated with diammonium hydrogen phosphate treatments: non-destructive probing of buried minerals
- 54 Downloads
Diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP)-based consolidating treatments react with carbonatic stones and form calcium phosphates phases, whose composition depends on the availability of free calcium ions. In this work, an innovative non-destructive approach based on grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to investigate DAP-treated Carrara marble specimens and to study the influence of the substrate composition on the crystallization of calcium phosphate phases. The outcomes indicate that the presence of compositional micro-heterogeneity of Carrara marble favours the formation of specific phases. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, a calcium phosphate with a low Ca/P molar ratio, is formed on carbonatic phases with a low Ca amount, such as dolomite grains and Mg-containing veins. Furthermore, this study highlights the potentialities of SR-GIXRD as a powerful non-destructive tool for the diagnostic of Cultural Heritage objects since it allows investigating the conservation history of stone materials and their interaction with the environment.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Elettra Synchrotron Trieste for allocation of experimental beamtime.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.M. Matteini, Conserv. Sci. Cult. Herit. 8, 13 (2008)Google Scholar
- 2.E. Doehne, C.A. Price, Stone Conservation. An Overview of Current Research, 2nd edn. (the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2010)Google Scholar
- 3.G. Torraca, Lectures on Materials Science for Architectural Conservation, 1st edn. (the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2009)Google Scholar
- 13.E. Sassoni, E. Franzoni, in Built Herit. Monit. Conserv. Manag, ed. by L. Toniolo, M. Boriani, G. Guidi eds. (Springer, Cham, 2015), pp. 379–389Google Scholar
- 17.C. Drouet, Biomed Res. Int. 1 (2013) (2013)Google Scholar
- 19.P. Dutta, Curr. Sci. 78, 1478 (2000)Google Scholar
- 21.L.K. Herrera, A. Duran, M.L. Franquelo, M. del C. Jimenez de Haro, Á. Justo Erbez., and J.L. Perez-Rodriguez, J. Cult. Herit. 9, e41 (2008)Google Scholar
- 22.L.K. Herrera, A. Duran, M.L. Franquelo, A.R. González-Elipe, J.P. Espinós, J. Rubio-Zuazo, G.R. Castro, A. Justo, J.L. Perez-Rodriguez, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 7, 47 (2009)Google Scholar
- 24.G. Chiari, A. Giordano, G. Menges, Sci. Technol. Cult. Herit. 5, 21 (1996)Google Scholar
- 25.D. Pittaluga, F. Fratini, A. Nielsen, S. Rescic, in Sci. E Beni Cult. XXVIII, ed. by Arcadia Ricerche ed. (2012), pp. 303–312Google Scholar