Applied Physics A

, 124:383 | Cite as

Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction of marbles consolidated with diammonium hydrogen phosphate treatments: non-destructive probing of buried minerals

  • Elena Possenti
  • Chiara Colombo
  • Claudia Conti
  • Lara Gigli
  • Marco Merlini
  • Jasper Rikkert Plaisier
  • Marco Realini
  • G. Diego Gatta


Diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP)-based consolidating treatments react with carbonatic stones and form calcium phosphates phases, whose composition depends on the availability of free calcium ions. In this work, an innovative non-destructive approach based on grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to investigate DAP-treated Carrara marble specimens and to study the influence of the substrate composition on the crystallization of calcium phosphate phases. The outcomes indicate that the presence of compositional micro-heterogeneity of Carrara marble favours the formation of specific phases. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, a calcium phosphate with a low Ca/P molar ratio, is formed on carbonatic phases with a low Ca amount, such as dolomite grains and Mg-containing veins. Furthermore, this study highlights the potentialities of SR-GIXRD as a powerful non-destructive tool for the diagnostic of Cultural Heritage objects since it allows investigating the conservation history of stone materials and their interaction with the environment.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Elettra Synchrotron Trieste for allocation of experimental beamtime.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC)Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)MilanItaly
  3. 3.Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A.Basovizza, TriesteItaly

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