Applied Physics A

, 124:390 | Cite as

Effect of citric acid on material properties of ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ nanopowder prepared by sol–gel method

  • Megersa K. Hussen
  • Francis B. Dejene
  • Girma G. Gonfa


This paper reports the material properties of Cr3+ (1.0 mol%)-doped ZnGa2O4 nanopowders prepared by citric acid-assisted sol–gel method with metal cations (Zn + Ga) to citric (M:CA) molar ratios of (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:4). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the synthesized nanoparticles are cubic structured and concentration of citric acid did not affect the structure. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the increase of the M:CA molar ratio favors the formation of smaller nano particle of ZnGa2O4:Cr3+. The photoluminescence (PL) is found to be maximum for sample with M:CA ratio of 1:1. Further increase in citric acid leads to significant decrease in the PL intensity. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurement confirms the presence of the Zn, Ga, O and Cr ions. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer measurement shows an increase in reflectance in visible region and the energy band gap was found to decrease with an increase in citric acid molar ratio. The emission spectra, particle size and photoluminescence lifetimes are comparable with reports on bioimaging applications.



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support given by the directorate of the research at University of the Free State (South Africa).


  1. 1.
    F. Zhanjun, L. Xufan, H. Jane, X. Jun, Z. Yuliang, P. Zhengwei, Am. Chem. Soc. 1, 354 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Luan, J. Liu, X. Yuan, J.-G Li, Nanoscale Res Lett. 12, 219 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Vasile, A. Ioitescu, N. Avram, E. Rusu, mjps 17, (2008) 360Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Aurélie, J. Sylvaine, P. Kaustubh, L. Aurélie, V. Bruno, D. Gourier, Opt. Express 19, 10131 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Jae, P. Seo, P. Joon, C. Hyung, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 499, 85 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Kima, H. Parka, C. Chonb, H. Moonb, T. Kimc, Solid-State Commun 129, 163 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Sharma, B. Aurelie, J. Lumin 155, 251 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Dhak, U. Gayen, S. Mishra, P. Pramanik, A. Roy, J. App. Phy. 106, 1063 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Cha, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Park, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys 499, 85 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Sharma, D. Gourier, T. Viana, Opt. Mater. 36, 1901 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Sylvaine, P. Kaustubh, L. Aurélie, V. Bruno, D. Gourier, Opt. Express 19, 10131 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.K. Singh, RSC Adv. 4, 58674 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X. Duana, D. Yuana, L. Wanga, F. Yua, X. Chenga, Z. Liua, J. Cryst. Growth 296, 234 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. Zhang, J. Zhang, H. Wan, Z. Chent, T. Wang, Mater.Sci.Forum 610–613, 616 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.X.W. Gang, L. Gui-ying, H. Chang-wei, Chem. Res. Chin. Univ. 29, 154 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.W.,C. Seungho, J. Seung-Ho, L. Ram, O. Eugene, L. Kun, Langmuir 25, 3825 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Safa, R. Azimirad, S. Safalou Moghaddam, M. Rabbani, Desalin Water Treat 57, 6723 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Mote, Y. Purushotham, B. Dole, JTAP, 6, 1 (2012)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Somasundaram, K. Abhilash, V. Sudarsan, P. Christopher, R.M. Kadam, PhysicaB 491, 79 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Motloung, F. Dejene, O. Ntwaeaborwa, H.Swart, Mater.Res. Express 1, 045029 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Motloung, F. Dejene, L. Koao, O. Ntwaeaborwa. H. Swart, T. Motaung, O. Ndwandwe, J. Alloys Compd. 64, 26 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Motloung, M. Tsega, F. Dejene, H. Swart, O. Ntwaeaborwa, L. Koao, T. Motaung, M. Hato, J. Alloys Compd. 677, 72 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Motloung, F. Dejene, O. Ntwaeaborwa, H. Swart, Ceram. Int. 41, 6776 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.G.L. Rosendo, J. Sol-Gel. Sci. Technol. 61, 1 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Z. Gu, F. Liu, X. Li, J. Howe, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 354 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Brik, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1435 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Mostafa, S. Ibrahim, I. Samir, Bio. Mol. Spectrosc 131, 329 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Su, S. Ye, X. Ye, F. Lu, X. Yang, Q. Zhan, Opt. Mater. Exp. 7, 734 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Z. Le, L. Zhou, Z. Jinzhen, Y. Hao, H. Pengde, J. Rare. Earth 30, 289 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Z. Zhihao, W. Zheng, J. Kong, Y. Liu, RSC 9, 1 (2017)ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Abdukader, C. Tong, Z. Qiang, X. Yan, Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 14125 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H.L.J. Kyeong, K. Yun, P. Seung, Y. Young, Chem. Mater. 17, 2729 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Cha, H. Choi, Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater 12, 11 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Jong, K. Tae, P. Hong, K. Young, C. Soo, H. Sang, Sol. Commun. 131, 493 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Bhupendra, K. Anxiu, Y. Mao, Chem. Commun. 51, 7372 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Menon, K. Choudhari, S. Shivashankar, C. Santhosh, D. Kulkarni, J. Alloys Compd. 728, 484 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K.G. Tshabalala, S.-H. Chob, J.-K. Park, S.S. Pitale, I.M. Nagpurea, R.E. Kroona, J. Alloys.Comp 509, 10115 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Safa, S. Mokhtari, A. Khayatian, R. Azimirad, Opt. Commun. 413, 131 (2018) [a J Alloys. Comp, 509, 10115 (2011)]ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Abdukayum, J. Chen, Q. Zhao, X. Yan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 14125 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Megersa K. Hussen
    • 1
  • Francis B. Dejene
    • 1
  • Girma G. Gonfa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of physicsUniversity of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus)PhuthaditjhabaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of physicsDire Dawa UniversityDire DawaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations