Bioerosion of reef-building crustose coralline algae by endolithic invertebrates in an upwelling-influenced reef

Abstract

Coral reef growth is primarily determined by constructive and bioerosive processes acting on key reef-building organisms. Among them, corals are major contributors to the construction of reef frameworks, while crustose coralline algae (CCA) primarily take part in reef cementation. Despite the significance of CCA for reef ecology and functioning, there is very little information on CCA bioerosion rates, in particular in reefs influenced by coastal upwelling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the percentage and rates of internal bioerosion by macroborer invertebrates in two dominant CCA species and to explore whether the oceanographic variability influences the nature of bioerosion in coral reefs of the Tayrona Natural National Park (Colombian Caribbean). Annual rates of gross calcium carbonate production for Lithoplyllum kaiseri and Porolithon antillarum were 0.556 (± 0.38) and 0.883 (± 1.0) g CaCO3 cm−2 year−1, respectively, and estimates of percent area covered by macroborer boreholes showed values of 29.7% for L. kaiseri and 18.0% for P. antillarum. Rates of calcium carbonate removal by internal macroborers in L. kaiseri (0.19 ± 0.17 g CaCO3 cm−2 year−1) were higher than those in P. antillarum (0.14 ± 0.17 g CaCO3 cm−2 year−1). The percentage of internal bioerosion did not vary significantly across climatic/oceanographic seasons. Boreholes produced by mollusks, polychaetes, sponges and sipunculids were identified, with mollusks having the highest erosion activity. A total of 2,095 individuals of boring and opportunistic organisms were identified and grouped into 29 families (17 polychaetes, 4 mollusks, 2 sipunculids and 6 crustaceans). The composition of the macroborer invertebrate community also varied between CCA species, with higher boreholes attributed to vermetids in L. kaiseri than in P. antillarum. Although there is no clear influence of climatic seasons on internal bioerosion, the high rates of CCA bioerosion may reduce reef consolidation in the region.

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Acknowledgements

To the team associated with the Ecology and Diversity of Marine Algae and Coral Reefs Research Group. This study was funded by a grant from the University of Magdalena—FONCIENCIAS. Thanks to the Laboratory of Marine Mollusks at the Pilot Plant of the University of Magdalena for access to the facilities and to the Office of Administration and Management of Protected Areas for granting the scientific research and biological diversity permit (No. 001 March 2017). GDP was supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery grant (DP160103071).

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Supplementary Information

S1. Photograph showing fragments of the crustose coralline algae Porolithon antillarum and Lithophyllum kaiseri embedded in resin within PVC disks and attached to racks fixed to the reef in Gayraca bay (TNNP) at 5 m depth (DOCX 42 kb)

S2. Table with values of gross calcification in g CaCo3 cm-2 yr-1 and percentages of bioerosion of the crustose coralline algae Porolithon antillarum and Lithophyllum kaiseri (DOCX 17 kb)

S3. Table with relative abundance of macroboring and percentage of bioerosion in Porolithon antillarum and Lithophyllum kaiseri (DOCX 21 kb)

S4. A non-metrical multidimensional scaling (MDS) results showing clustering among climatic seasons (S1 and S4: Upwelling seasons, S2: minor non-upwelling season, S3: major non-upwelling season) and the main groups of macrobioeroders for the two species of coralline algae (L: Lithophyllum and P: Porolithon) (DOCX 39 kb)

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Ramírez-Viaña, A., Diaz-Pulido, G. & García-Urueña, R. Bioerosion of reef-building crustose coralline algae by endolithic invertebrates in an upwelling-influenced reef. Coral Reefs (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-021-02065-2

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Keywords

  • Bioerosion
  • Macroborers
  • Colombian Caribbean
  • Coralline algae