Nutritional status and metabolism of the coral Stylophora subseriata along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia)
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Coral responses to degrading water quality are highly variable between species and depend on their trophic plasticity, acclimatization potential, and stress resistance. To assess the nutritional status and metabolism of the common scleractinian coral, Stylophora subseriata, in situ experiments were carried along a eutrophication gradient in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Coral fragments were incubated in light and dark chambers to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification in a number of shallow reefs along the gradient. Chlorophyll a (chl a), protein content, maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and effective quantum yield (Φ PS II) were measured on the zooxanthellae, in addition to host tissue protein content and biomass. Photosynthetic rates were 2.5-fold higher near-shore than mid-shelf due to higher areal zooxanthellae and chl a concentrations and a higher photochemical efficiency (Φ PS II). A 2- and 3-fold increase in areal host tissue protein and biomass was found, indicating a higher nutritional supply in coastal waters. Dark respiration, however, showed no corresponding changes. There was a weak correlation between calcification and photosynthesis (Pearson r = 0.386) and a lack of metabolic stress, as indicated by constant respiration and Fv/Fm and the “clean” and healthy appearance of the colonies in spite of high turbidity in near-shore waters. The latter suggests that part of the energetic gains through increased auto- and heterotrophy were spent on metabolic expenditures, e.g., mucus production. While coastal pollution is always deleterious to the reef ecosystem as a whole, our results show that the effect on corals may not always be negative. Thus, S. subseriata may be one of the few examples of corals actually profiting from land-based sources of pollution.
KeywordsMetabolism Acclimatization Photosynthesis Nutritional status Eutrophication Stylophora subseriata
This study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under a bilateral German-Indonesian project (SPICE). Further support was given by the Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). We want to thank scientist, students, and technicians of the Center for Coral Reef Research at the Hasanuddin University for their great support in organization, field work, and space acquisition at the university as well as at the Marine Station on the island Barang Lompo. Thanks are due to Kai Bischof and Wiebke Krämer for their advice with regard to coral photosynthesis.
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