Skip to main content

Vegetation of the Lago de Sanabria area (NW Iberia) since the end of the Pleistocene: a palaeoecological reconstruction on the basis of two new pollen sequences

Abstract

Various pollen sequences from lacustrine deposits close to Lago de Sanabria (NW Iberia) have for several decades been a key source of information for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of SW Europe, though their interpretation has been the subject of some controversy. Here we present two new pollen sequences obtained from this area, and a new palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the region. The available pollen data reach back to before 18,000 b.p., a period of very harsh climate with seasonal (non continuous) sedimentation and a landscape characterised by herbaceous formations dominated by Gramineae and Artemisia, and scrub formations dominated by Ericaceae and Cistaceae. Subsequently sedimentation became continuous, and various regional forest expansions are apparent. At a local level, the first forest expansion began about 12,000 b.p., when Betula pollen reached 70% followed by peaks in Pinus sylvestris-type (>80%) and Quercus robur-type (40%). The Younger Dryas saw a retreat of woodland formations in the area around the lake, with broadleaved deciduous woodland (largely oak) retreating at mid and low altitudes, but with pine woodland persisting in more sheltered sites. The climatic improvement in the Early Holocene favoured re-expansion of woodland, dominated by Pinus sylvestris-type at higher and Quercus robur and Q. pyrenaica at lower altitudes, until anthropogenic deforestation commenced around 4,000 b.p. The disappearance of natural pine woodlands in this region is probably largely attributable to human interference.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. Aldasoro Martín, J.J., de Hoyos, Alonso, C., Vega Ureta, J.C. (1991) El Lago de Sanabria. Estudio limnológico. Monografías de la Red de Espacios Naturales de Castilla y León. Junta de Castilla y León. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio. Dirección General de Medio Natural. Servicio Territorial de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio de Zamora

  2. Allen, J.R.M., Huntley, B., Watts, W.A. (1996) The vegetation and climate of the northwest Iberia over the last 14,000 yr. J Quaternary Sci 11:125–147

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ammann, B., Lotter, A.F. (1989) Late-Glacial radiocarbon and palynostratigraphy on the Swiss Plateau. Boreas 18:109–12

    Google Scholar 

  4. Baroni, C., Orombelli, G. (1996) The Alpine “iceman” and Holocene climatic change. Quaternary Res 46:78–83

    Google Scholar 

  5. Beaulieu, J.L. de, Reille, M. (1984) A long Upper Pleistocene pollen record from Les Echets, near Lyon, France. Boreas 13:111–132

    Google Scholar 

  6. Beaulieu, J.L. de, Reille, M. (1992) Long Pleistocene pollen sequences from the Velay Plateau (Massif Central, France). I Ribains maar. Veg Hist Archaeobot 1:233–242

    Google Scholar 

  7. Beaulieu, J.L. de, Andrieu, V., Ponel, P., Reille, M. (1994) The Weichselian Late-glacial in southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Pyrenees, Massif Central, northern Apennines). J Quaternary Sci 9:101–107

    Google Scholar 

  8. Becker, B., Kromer, B., Timborn, P. (1991) A stable-isotope tree-ring timescale of the Late Glacial/Holocene boundary. Nature 353:647–649

    Google Scholar 

  9. Behre, K.E. (1989) Biostratigraphy of the last glacial period in Europe. Quaternary Sci Rev 8:25–44

    Google Scholar 

  10. Behre, K.E., Plicht, J. van der (1992) Towards an absolute chronology for the last glacial period in Europe: radiocarbon dates from Oerel, northern Germany. Veg Hist Archaeobot 1:111–117

  11. Bennet, K.D., Tzedakis, C., Willis, K.J. (1991) Quaternary refugia of North European trees. J Biogeography 18:103–115

    Google Scholar 

  12. Berglund, B.E., Birks, H.J.B., Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, M., Wright, H.E. (eds) (1996) Palaeoecological events during the last 15,000 years. In: Regional syntheses of palaeoecological studies of lakes and mires in Europe. Wiley, New York

  13. Birks, H.J.B. (1973) Past and present vegetation of the Isle of Skye: a palaeoecological study. University Press, Cambridge

  14. Carrión, J.S., Geel, B. van (1999) Fine-resolution Upper Weichselian and Holocene palynological record from Navarrés (Valencia, Spain) and a discussion about factors of Mediterranean forest succession. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 106:209–236

    Google Scholar 

  15. Carrión, J.S., Navarro, C., Navarro, J., Munuera, M. (2000) The distribution of cluster pine (Pinus pinaster) in Spain as derived from palaeoecological data: relationships with phytosociological classification. The Holocene 10:243–252

    Google Scholar 

  16. CLIMAP Members (1981) Seasonal reconstructions of the Earth’s surface at last glacial maximum. Geological Society of America, Map and Chart series MC-36

  17. COHMAP Members (1988) Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations. Science 241:1043–1052

    Google Scholar 

  18. Coudé-Gaussen, G. (1981) Les Serres da Peneda et do Gerês (Minho, Portugal). Étude Géomorphologique. Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Lisboa

  19. Faegri, K., Kaland, P.E., Krzywinsky, K. (1989) Textbook of pollen analysis. Alden, London

  20. Franco Mújica, F., García Antón, M., Maldonado Ruíz, J., Morla Juarista, C., Sainz Ollero, H. (2001) The Holocene history of Pinus forests in the Spanish Northern Meseta. The Holocene 11:343–358

  21. Frenzel, B., Pécsi, M., Velichko, A.A. (1992) Atlas of palaeoclimates and palaeoenvironments of the Northern Hemisphere. Late Pleistocene-Holocene. Fischer, Stuttgart

  22. García-Ruiz, J.M., Valero-Garcés, B.L., Martí-Bono, C., González-Sampériz, P. (2003) Asynchroneity of maximum glacial advances in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. J Quaternary Sci 18:61–72

    Google Scholar 

  23. Geel, B. van, Coope, G.R., Hammen, T. van der (1989) Palaeoecology and stratigraphy of the Late glacial type section at Usselo (The Netherlands). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 39:25–129

    Google Scholar 

  24. Gómez-Lobo, A. (1993) Historia de la vegetación durante los últimos 15,000 años en los Picos de Urbión (Soria) en base al análisis polínico. PhD Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcalá

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gómez-Orellana, L. (2002) El último ciclo glaciar interglaciar en el Litoral del NW ibérico: Dinámica climática y paisajística. PhD Thesis, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

  26. Gómez-Orellana, L., Ramil-Rego, P., Muñoz Sobrino, C. (1997) Modelos de transición entre el pleniglaciar Würmiense final y el Tardiglaciar en los sectores litorales y montañosos del NW de la Península Ibérica. In: Rodríguez Vidal J (ed) Cuaternario Ibérico. Asociación de Estudios Cuaternarios, Huelva, pp 339–345

  27. Grimm, E. (1990) TILIA and TILIA.GRAPH: PC spreadsheets and graphics software for pollen data. INQUA Comm. Stud. Holocene Working Group on Data-Handling Methods. Newslettter 4:5–7

  28. Hannon, G.E. (1985) Late Quaternary vegetation of Sanabria marsh, North West Spain. MSc Thesis, Trinity College, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hoek, W.Z. (1997) Late-glacial and early Holocene climatic events and chronology of vegetation development in the Netherlands. Veg Hist Archaeobot 6:197–213

    Google Scholar 

  30. Huntley, B., Birks, H.J.B. (1983) An atlas of past and present pollen maps of Europe: 0–13,000 years ago. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  31. Huntley, B., Watts, W.A., Allen, J.R.M., Zolitschka, B. (1999) Palaeoclimate, chronology and vegetation history of the Weichselian Lateglacial: comparative analysis of data from three cores at Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy. Quaternary Sci Rev 18:945–960

    Google Scholar 

  32. Janssen, C.R. (1996) Aspects of vegetation development in the Sierra Cabrera Baja, NW-Cantabria, Spain, as part of a long-term project in the Medium High Mountains of Western and Southwestern Europe. In: Ramil-Rego P, Fernández Rodríguez C, Rodríguez Guitián MA (eds) Biogeografía Pleistocena-Holocena de la Península Ibérica, Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, pp 183–198

    Google Scholar 

  33. Jouzel, J., Berkov, N.I., Bartola, J.N., Bender, M., Chappellaz, J., Genthon, C., Kotlyakov, M., Lipnkov, V., Lorius, C., Petit, J.R., Raynaud, D., Raisbeck, G., Ritz, C., Sowers, T., Stievenard, M., Yiou, F., Yiou, P. (1993) Extending the Vostok ice-core record of palaeoclimate to the penultimate glacial period. Nature 364:407–412

    Google Scholar 

  34. Knaap, W.O. van der, Leeuwen, J.F.N. van (1994) Holocene vegetation. Human impact, and climatic change in the Serra da Estrela, Portugal. Dissetationes Botanicae 234:497–535

    Google Scholar 

  35. Knaap, W.O. van der, Leeuwen, J.F.N. van (1995) Holocene vegetation succession and degradation as responses to climatic change and human activity in the Sierra de Estrela, Portugal. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 89:153–211

    Google Scholar 

  36. Knaap, W.O. van der, Leeuwen, J.F.N. van (1997) Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation succession altitudinal vegetation zonation, and climatic change in the Serra da Estrela, Portugal. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 97:239–285

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kolstrup, E. (1979) Herbs as July temperature indicators for parts of the Pleniglacial and Late-Glacial in the Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw 58:337–380

    Google Scholar 

  38. Kromer, B., Becker, B. (1993) German oak pine 14C calibration 7,200–9,400 b.c. Radiocarbon 35:125–137

    Google Scholar 

  39. Leira, M., Santos, L. (2002) An early Holocene short climatic event in the northwest Iberian inferred from pollen and diatoms. Quaternary Int 93–94:3–12

    Google Scholar 

  40. Litt, T., Stebich, M. (1999) Bio- and chronostratigraphy of the lateglacial in the Eifel region, Germany. Quaternary Int 61:5–16

    Google Scholar 

  41. Losa España, T.M. (1949) Contribución al estudio de la flora y vegetación de la provincia de Zamora. Consejo de Investigaciones Cientiíficas. Instituto A.J. Cavanilles. Sección de Barcelona

  42. Lotter, A.F., Lemcke, G. (1999) Methods for preparing and counting biogeochemical varves. Boreas 28:243–252

    Google Scholar 

  43. Lowe, J.J., Watson, C. (1993) Lateglacial and Early Holocene pollen stratigraphy of the Northern Apennines, Italy. Quaternary Sci Rev 12:727–738

    Google Scholar 

  44. Lowe, J.J., NASP Members (1995) Palaeoclimate of the North Atlantic seaboards during the last glacial/interglacial transition. Quaternary Sci Rev 28:51–61

    Google Scholar 

  45. Magri, D. (1999) Late Quaternary vegetation history at Lagaccione near Lago di Bolsena (central Italy). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 106:171–208

    Google Scholar 

  46. Maldonado, J. (1994) Evolución Tardiglaciar y Holocena de los macizos del Noroeste Peninsular. PhD Thesis, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

  47. Mangerud, J., Andersen, S.T., Berglund, B.E., Donner, J.J. (1974) Quaternary stratigraphy of Norden, a proposal for timing and classification. Boreas 3:109–103

    Google Scholar 

  48. McKeever, M. (1984) Comparative palynological studies of two lake sites in western Ireland and northwestern Spain. MSc Thesis, Trinity College, Dublin

    Google Scholar 

  49. Menéndez Amor, J., Florschütz, F. (1961) Contribución al conocimiento de la historia de la vegetación en España durante el Cuaternario. Resultado del análisis palinológico de algunas series de muestras de turba, arcilla y otros sedimentos en los alrededores de: I. Puebla de Sanabria (Zamora); II. Buelna (Asturias), Vivero (Galicia) y en Levante. Estudios Geológicos 17:83–99

  50. Moore, P.D., Webb, J.A., Collinson, M.E. (1991) Pollen analysis. Blackwell, Oxford

  51. Montserrat Martí, J.M. (1992) Evolución glaciar y postglaciar del clima la vegetación en la vertiente Sur del Pirineo: Estudio palinológico. Monografias del Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología 6:1–147

  52. Mourik, J.M. van (1986) Pollen profiles of slope deposits in the Galician area (N.W. Spain). Nederlandse Geografische Studies 12:1–171

    Google Scholar 

  53. Muñoz Sobrino, C. (2001) Cambio climático y dinámica del paisaje en las montañas del noroeste de la Península ibérica. PhD Thesis, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

  54. Muñoz Sobrino, C., Ramil-Rego, P., Delibes de Castro, G., Rojo, M. (1996) Datos paleobotánicos sobre la turbera de La Piedra (Páramo de Tozo, Burgos). In: Ramil-Rego P, Fernández Rodríguez C, Rodríguez Guitián MA (eds) Biogeografía Pleistocena-Holocena de la Península Ibérica, Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, pp 149–162

    Google Scholar 

  55. Muñoz Sobrino, C., Ramil-Rego, P., Rodríguez Guitián, MA. (1997) Upland vegetation in the north-west Iberian peninsula after the last glaciation: forest history and deforestation dynamics. Veg Hist Archaeobot 6:215–233

  56. Muñoz Sobrino, C., Ramil-Rego, P., Rodríguez Guitián, MA. (2001) Vegetation in the mountains of northwest Iberia during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Veg Hist Archaeobot 10:7–21

  57. NASP Members (1994) Climatic changes in areas adjacent to the North Atlantic during the last glacial-interglacial transition (14–9 ka b.p.): a contribution to IGCP-253. J Quaternary Sci 9:185–198

    Google Scholar 

  58. Navarro Andrés, F., Valle Guitiérrez, C.J. (1987) Castilla-León. In: Peinado Lorca M, Rivas-Martínez S (eds) La vegetación de España. Universidad de Alcalá, Secretaría General, Servicio de Publicaciones, pp 47–66

  59. Olsson, I.U. (1986) Radiometric dating. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, New York, pp 273–312

    Google Scholar 

  60. Paus, A. (1992) Late Weichselian vegetation, climate, and floral migration in Rogaland, southwestern Norway; pollen analytical evidence from four Late-glacial basins. PhD Thesis, University of Bergen, Norway

    Google Scholar 

  61. Peñalba, M.C. (1989) Dynamique de vegetation tardiglaciaire et holocene du centre-nord de l’Espagne d’apres l’analyse pollinique. PhD Thesis, Univeriste d’Aix, Marseille III

  62. Peñalba, M.C., Arnold, M., Guiot, J., Duplessy, J.C., Beaulieu, J.L. de (1997) Termination in the Iberian Peninsula inferred from the pollen sequence of Quintanar de la Sierra. Quaternary Res 48:205–214

    Google Scholar 

  63. Pérez, A., Rodríguez Guitián, M.A., Valcárcel, M. (1993) Formas y depósitos glaciares en las Sierras Septentrionales y Orientales de Galicia. In: Pérez A, Ramil-Rego P, Guitián L (eds) La evolución del paisaje en las montañas del entorno de los Caminos Jacobeos. Xunta de Galicia, Santiago, pp 61–90

    Google Scholar 

  64. Peyron, O., Guiot, J., Cheddadi, R., Tarasov, P., Reille, M., Beaulieu, J.L. de, Bottema, S., Andrieu, V. (1998) Climatic reconstruction in Europe for 18,000 yr b.p from pollen data. Quaternary Res 49:183–196

    Google Scholar 

  65. Pons, A., Reille, M. (1988) The Holocene and Upper Pleistocene pollen record from Padul (Granada, Spain): a new study. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 66:243–263

    Google Scholar 

  66. Pott, R. (1998) La evolución postglaciar de los bosques frondosos caducifolios de Europa. Itinera Geobotánica 11:31–63

    Google Scholar 

  67. Punt, W. et al. (1976–1991) The Northwest European Pollen Flora (NEPF) Vol I (1976), Vol II (1980), Vol III (1981), Vol IV (1984) Vol V (1988), Vol VI (1991). Elsevier, Amsterdam

  68. Ramil-Rego, P. (1992) La vegetación cuaternaria de las Sierras Septentrionales de Lugo a través del análisis polínico. PhD Thesis, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    Google Scholar 

  69. Ramil-Rego, P., Gómez-Orellana, L. (1996) Dinámica climática y biogeográfica del área litoral—sublitoral de Galicia durante el Pleistoceno Superior—Holoceno. In: Ramil-Rego, P., Fernández Rodríguez, C., Rodríguez Guitián, M.A. (eds) Biogeografía Pleistocena-Holocena de la Península Ibérica. Xunta de Galicia. Santiago de Compostela, pp 43–72

  70. Ramil-Rego, P., Gómez-Orellana, L., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Rodríguez Guitián, M.A. (1996) Valoración de las secuencias polínicas del Norte de la Península Ibérica para el último ciclo glaciar-interglaciar In: Ramil-Rego, P., Fernández Rodríguez, C. (eds) Arqueometría y Paleoecología del Norte de la Península Ibérica. Cambios naturales y perturbaciones antrópicas. Fervedes 3, pp 33–116

  71. Ramil-Rego, P., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Rodríguez Guitián, M.A., Gómez-Orellana, L. (1998a) Differences in the vegetation of the North Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Plant Ecology 138:41–62

  72. Ramil-Rego, P., Rodríguez Guitián, M.A., Muñoz Sobrino, C. (1998b) Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecol Biogeogr 7:335–351

  73. Ramil-Rego, P., Rodríguez Guitián, M.A., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Gómez-Orellana, L. (2000) Some considerations about the postglacial history and recent distribution of Fagus sylvatica L., in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Folia Geobotanica 35:241–271

  74. Reille, M. (1990) Leçons de Palynologie et d’analyse pollinique. Editions du CNRS, Paris

  75. Reille. M. (1992) Pollen et spores d’Europe et d’Afrique du Nord. Laboratoire de Botanique historique et Palynologie, Marseille

  76. Rivas-Martínez, S. (1987) Memoria del mapa de series de vegetación de España. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, ICONA, Serie Técnica

  77. Rivas-Martínez, S., Loidi Arregui, J., Costa Talens, T.E., Díaz González, T.E., Penas Merino, A. (1999) Iter ibericum a.d. MIM. (Excursus geobotanicus per Hispanium et Lusitaniam, ante 42 Symposium Societatis Internationalis Scientiae Vegetationis Bilbao mese Iulio celebrandum dicti Anni) [Geobotanical excursion of the 42nd Spanish and Portuguese Symposium of the International Society of Vegetation Scientists]. Itinera Geobotánica 13:5–348

  78. Rodríguez Guitián, M.A., Valcárcel, M. (1994) Contribución al conocimiento del glaciarismo pleistoceno en la vertiente sur-occidental del macizo de Pena Trevinca (Montañas Galaico-Sanabrienses, NW Ibérico). In: Arnáez, J., García Ruiz, J.M., Gómez Villar, A. (eds) Geomofología de España. Sociedad Española de Geografía, Logroño, pp 241–251

  79. Sánchez-Goñi, M.F., Hannon, G.E. (1999) High-altitude vegetational pattern on the Iberian Mountain Chain (north-central Spain) during the Holocene. The Holocene 9:39–47

    Google Scholar 

  80. Santos, L., Vidal Romani, J.R., Jalut, G. (2000) History of vegetation during the Holocene in the Courel and Queixa Sierras, Galicia, northwest Iberian Peninsula. J Quaternary Sci 15:621–632

    Google Scholar 

  81. Schmitz, H. (1969) Glazialmorphologische Untersuchungen in Bergland Nordwestspaniens (Galicien—León). Kölner Geographische Arbeiten 23:1–157

  82. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J. (1993) Extended 14C database and revised Calib 3.0 14C age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35:215–230

    Google Scholar 

  83. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J. (2000) Radiocarbon Calibration Program. CALIB rev. 4.3

  84. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Beck, J.W., Burr, G.S., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., Plicht, J. van der, Spurk, M. (1998) INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000–0 cal b.p. Radiocarbon 40:1,041–1,083

    Google Scholar 

  85. Troels-Smith, J. (1955) Characterization of unconsolidated sediments. Danmarks Geologiske Undersoegelse 4:1–73

    Google Scholar 

  86. Turner, C., Hannon, E. (1988) Vegetational evidence for late Quaternary climatic changes in southwest Europe in relation to the influence of the North Atlantic Ocean. Philos T Roy Soc Lon 318:451–485

    Google Scholar 

  87. Tzedakis, P.C. (1993) Long-term tree populations in northwest Greece through multiple Quaternary climatics cycles. Nature 364:437–440

    Google Scholar 

  88. Walker, M.C.J. (1995) Climatic changes in Europe during the last glacial/interglacial transition. Quaternary Int 28:63–76

    Google Scholar 

  89. Walker, M.C.J., Björck, S., Lowe, J.J., Cwynar, L.C., Johnsen, S., Knudsen, K.L., Wohlfarth, B., INTIMATE Group (1999) Isotopic “events” in the GRIP ice core: a stratotype for the Late Pleistocene. Quaternary Sci Rev 18:1143–1150

    Google Scholar 

  90. Watts, W.A. (1973) Rates of change and stability in vegetation in the perspective of long periods of time. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary Plant Ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 195–206

    Google Scholar 

  91. Watts, W.A. (1986) Stages of climatic change from full Glacial to Holocene in Northwest Spain, Southern France and Italy: A Comparison of the Atlantic Coast and the Mediterranean Basin. In: Ghazi A, Fantechi R (eds) Current Issues in Climate Research. Proc EC Climatology Programme Symposium Sophia Antipolis, France, October 1984, pp 101–111

    Google Scholar 

  92. Willis, K.J., Rudner, E., Sümegi, P. (2000) The Full-Glacial Forests of Central and Southeastern Europe. Quaternary Res 53:203–213

    Google Scholar 

  93. Zbinden, H., Andree, M., Oeschger, H., Ammannn, B., Lotter, A., Bonani, G., Wolfli, W. (1989) Atmospheric radiocarbon at the end of the last glacial: an estimate based on the AMS radiocarbon dates on terrestrial macrofossils from the lake sediments. Radicarbon 31:795–804

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was carried out as part of projects Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología REN2002–02271/GLO and Xunta de Galicia PGIDIT01PAT29101PR. The research work of the first author was supported by the SXID (Xunta de Galicia) during the last six months. We thank the staff of the Parque Natural del Lago de Sanabria for information and facilities provided during this work, G. Norman who translated the text, C.R. Janssen, W.O. van der Knaap and F. Bittmann who offered useful criticism of the manuscript and M.A. Rodríguez Guitián and A.F. Lotter for helpful remarks.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Castor Muñoz Sobrino.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Muñoz Sobrino, C., Ramil-Rego, P. & Gómez-Orellana, L. Vegetation of the Lago de Sanabria area (NW Iberia) since the end of the Pleistocene: a palaeoecological reconstruction on the basis of two new pollen sequences. Veget Hist Archaeobot 13, 1–22 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-003-0028-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sanabria Marsh
  • Upper Pleistocene
  • Holocene
  • Climate change
  • Vegetation dynamics
  • Northwest Iberia