Validation of goose liver fat measurement by QCT and CSE-MRI with biochemical extraction and pathology as reference
This study aimed to validate the accuracy and reliability of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) to assess hepatic steatosis.
Twenty-two geese with a wide range of hepatic steatosis were collected. After QCT and CSE-MRI examinations, the liver of each goose was removed and samples were taken from the left lobe, upper and lower half of the right lobe for biochemical measurement and histology. Fat percentages by QCT and proton density fat fraction by MRI (MRI-PDFF) were measured within the sample regions of biochemical measurement and histology. The accuracy of QCT and MR measurements were assessed through Spearman correlation coefficients (r) and Passing and Bablok regression equations using biochemical measurement as the "gold standard".
Both QCT and MRI correlated highly with chemical extraction [r = 0.922 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.949 (p < 0.001) respectively]. Chemically extracted triglyceride was accurately predicted by both QCT liver fat percentages (Y = 0.6 + 0.866 × X) and by MRI-PDFF (Y = -1.8 + 0.773 × X).
QCT and CSE-MRI measurements of goose liver fat were accurate and reliable compared with biochemical measurement.
• QCT and CSE-MRI can measure liver fat content accurately and reliably
• Histological grading of hepatic steatosis has larger sampling variability
• QCT and CSE-MRI have potential in the clinical setting
KeywordsHepatic steatosis Quantitative computed tomography Chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging Proton density fat fraction Hepatic triglyceride analysis
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Quantitative Computed Tomography
Bone Mineral Density
peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography
Proton Density Fat Fraction
Chemical Shift Encoded Magnetic Resonance Imaging
We thank our study participants for contributing with their time and efforts. We wish to thank Mindways Software and Philips Healthcare for their technical support. We also thank Chao Wang for his professional suggestions on statistics. The authors acknowledge the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (81401407).
This study has received funding by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81401407).
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Li Xu.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare relationships with the following companies. Keenan Brown is the employee and stock owner of Mindways Software. There was no involvement by this company in the design, execution, analysis, or publication of this manuscript. Xiaoqi Wang is employed by Philips Healthcare. There was no involvement by this company in the design, execution, analysis, or publication of this manuscript. All the other authors declare no potential conflict of interest.
Statistics and biometry
Chao Wang kindly provided statistical advice for this manuscript.
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
Approval from the institutional animal care committee of Beijing Jishuitan Hospital was obtained.
• diagnostic or prognostic study
• performed at one institution
- 3.Williams CD, Stengel J, Asike MI, Torres DM, Shaw J, Contreras M, Landt CL et al (2011) Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among a largely middle-aged population utilizing ultrasound and liver biopsy: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 140:124–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, Diehl AM, Brunt EM, Cusi K, Charlton M et al (2012) The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Hepatology 55:2005–2023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Eggers H, Perkins TG, Hussain SM (2011) Influence of spectral model and signal decay on hepatic fat fraction measurements a 3 T with dual-echo Dixon imaging. Proc Int Soc Magn Reson Med 19:573Google Scholar
- 30.Kukuk GM, Hittatiya K, Sprinkart AM, Eggers H, Gieseke J, Block W, Moeller P et al (2015) Comparison between modified Dixon MRI techniques, MR spectroscopic relaxometry, and different histologic quantification methods in the assessment of hepatic steatosis. Eur Radiol 25:2869–2879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Artz NS, Hines CDG, Brunner ST, Agni RM, Kuhn JP, Roldan-Alzate A, Chen GH et al (2012) Quantification of hepatic steatosis with dual-energy computed tomography: Comparison with tissue reference standards and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in the ob/ob mouse. Invest Radiol 47:603–610CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 38.Wu CS, He JH, Guo XD, Luo HY, Ye JR, Huang JF, Wu YL et al (2008) Meat and meat products—determination of total fat content (GB/T 9695.7-2008). General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, pp 1–3Google Scholar
- 39.Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang ZM, Going SB (2005) Human body composition, 2nd edn. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign AppendixGoogle Scholar
- 43.Wang Y, Guo Z, Li D, Zhao HZ, Liu QH, Yu AH, Zhao YW et al (2012) Low-dose radiation in lumbar bone mineral density measurement by QCT. Chin J Osteoporos 18:992–995Google Scholar